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Thinking critically and creatively about focus groups

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Thinking critically and creatively about focus groups

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Thinking Critically and Creatively

phedre resume C r©©e le 1 er janvier 1677, PhЁdre repr©sente l’apog©e de l’“uvre tragique de Racine. Thinking About Focus Groups. Il a trente-sept ans et, depuis son premier chef-d’“uvre, Andromaque , jou© dix ans plus tґt, il a ©crit peu prЁs une piЁce par an. Essay. Prot©g© et admir© par le roi, ©lu l’Acad©mie fran§aise en 1672, il atteint le sommet de sa carriЁre. Critically Groups. C’est en cette mЄme ann©e 1677 qu’il va se marier avec une riche bourgeoise parisienne et qu’il sera nomm©, avec Boileau, « historiographe du roi ». D©sormais, Racine n’©crira plus de trag©die. China Threat Economic. Il partagera sa vie entre sa charge officielle la Cour et sa famille. Thinking Critically And Creatively Focus. Ce n’est qu’ la fin de sa vie que, la demande de Mme de Maintenon, il acceptera d’©crire deux piЁces chr©tiennes, Esther (1689) et Athalie (1691), des fins p©dagogiques, pour les jeunes filles pensionnaires de Saint-Cyr.

Pour r©ussir, Racine a su rompre des alliances et intriguer. Consider. Il s’est vivement oppos© son vieux rival Corneille. Critically About Groups. Il s’est attir© des intimit©s et des jalousies au point que la Voisin, lors de l’affaire des poisons, l’accusera d’avoir fait mourir son actrice et ma®tresse, la Du Parc. You Write An Essay For College. PhЁdre est l’occasion, pour les ennemis et rivaux de Racine, d’organiser contre lui une « cabale ». Thinking And Creatively About Focus. Bref, tous ©gards, PhЁdre est l’“uvre cl© de Racine – et lui-mЄme y vit son chef-d’“uvre, un aboutissement. PhЁdre reflЁte en tout cas les sp©cificit©s du tragique racinien, toutes pouss©es au paroxysme. India Economic Development. La passion y est f©roce et inadmissible (l’inceste). Critically About. Les conflits y opposent des Єtres que tout devrait unir. Essay China Threat Economic Development. Le mal s’y donne libre cours. Thinking Critically And Creatively About Focus Groups. Le destin s’acharne contre les cr©atures, aveugles, ©gar©es dans le labyrinthe, obs©d©es par une fuite impossible. Advantages And Disadvantages. Le pessimisme est extrЄme et chacun n’attend que la mort ou le sacrifice, tout en restant lucide sur la folie o№ il est plong©.

Racine, form© l’©cole du jans©nisme, puis oblig© de se frayer un chemin dans une soci©t© sans piti©, convaincu que l’homme est le jeu des passions et de la volont© de puissance, a concentr© dans PhЁdre , une derniЁre fois avant de se taire, sa sombre vision de la condition humaine. Racine a voulu revenir aux sources de la trag©die antique. Thinking Critically About. Ses premiЁres piЁces ont d©fie le go»t de son siЁcle, habitu© aux beaux sentiments des h©ros corn©liens. Essay China India. Refusant tout optimisme accommodant, Racine veut renouer avec un lieu th©ўtral sobre, d©nud©, o№ la cr©ature humaine est livr©e d’un combat in©gal avec la fatalit©. Thinking Critically And Creatively Focus Groups. Cette vision est sans doute influenc©e par la formation jans©niste de Racine.

Les modernes ont toujours ©t© fascin©s par la trag©die racinienne et par PhЁdre en particulier. Development. C’est qu’ils ont su traduire en d’autres termes le climat racinien et montrer qu’il atteint ce qui nous est essentiel. Thinking Critically About Groups. Plutґt que d’insister sur le « pЄch© originel » chr©tien, ils per§oivent dans PhЁdre le poids de l’h©r©dit© : quelle responsabilit© avons-nous, dЁs lors, que s’exercent notre insu les tares de notre sang ? Mais nous sentons bien aussi que la « faute » de PhЁdre touche au plus fort de l’interdit : l’inceste. Threat Economic Development. La prohibition de la sexualit© entre parents est universelle. Critically And Creatively. Elle a des raisons sociales, sans doute, mais elle constitue aussi, selon Freud, le c“ur du « refoul© » : complexe d’’dipe, attirance-r©pulsion. The Lobster Audio. Racine n’invente pas son sujet, mais il perp©tue l’interrogation primordiale de l’homme sur le d©sir. Critically Groups. Car nous d©sirons surtout ce qui est impossible. Lire PhЁdre , finalement, c’est rencontrer l’absolu. An Essay. Il a nom amour. Critically And Creatively Groups. C’est le tout ou rien : ou tu m’aimes ou je te tue.

Possessif ravageur, autodestructeur, l’amour est jaloux et cruel. Pourqu’il puisse se r©v©ler totalement, il s’attache exclusivement une personne qui ne peut lui appartenir sans crime – ou sans inceste. Buying. Le spectateur d©couvre ainsi le vrai de la passion. Critically. « Il n’y a pas d’amour heureux. A Dissertation. » La trag©die – comme le mythe – r©fl©chit la condition humaine. Thinking And Creatively. Mais elle est aussi spectacle et plaisir. How Do You Write. Car nous voyons les cons©quences de d©rЁglements qu’un autre vit pour nous : nous nous d©foulons, nous nous purifions. Focus. Et la langue de Racine, pur poЁme lyrique, invite au d©paysement et au rЄve, en transformant l’abomination des faits en m©lodie des c“urs bless©s. Ђ Tr©zЁne, en GrЁce, une ©poque fort lointaine, PhЁdre, seconde ©pouse du roi Th©s©e, est tomb©e amoureuse de son beau-fils Hippolyte.

Cette passion lui semble si monstrueuse qu’elle se r©sout mourir plutґt que d’avouer son amour. Essay On Mobile Advantages. Ne pouvant toutefois supporter le chagrin de sa nourrice ’none, qui la voit d©p©rir, elle lui confie l’origine du mal qui la consume. Thinking And Creatively Focus. Bientґt circule la rumeur de la mort de Th©s©e, absent depuis de longs mois. Sa succession au trґne ouvre une crise politique. Application Question. PhЁdre consulte Hippolyte ; mais, troubl©e par la pr©sence du jeune homme, elle finit par lui avouer qu’elle l’aime.

Hippolyte s’enfuit, horrifi©. Th©s©e serait vivant, apprend-on aussitґt aprЁs. Critically Focus Groups. PhЁdre mesure l’horreur de sa situation. Phones. Et si Hippolyte venait parler ? ’none lui suggЁre de prendre les devants et d’accuser Hippolyte de tentative de viol. Thinking About Groups. PhЁdre s’indigne, puis, accabl©e, laisse ’none agir sa guise. Celle-ci le d©nonce Th©s©e dЁs son retour. Essay China Threat India Economic Development. D©sespoir et fureur de Th©s©e. Critically And Creatively Focus. Pour preuve de son innocence, Hippolyte lui r©vЁle qu’il aime Aricie.

Th©s©e ne le croit pas. English Learning. Honteuse et repentante, PhЁdre accourt pour lui r©v©ler la v©rit©. Thinking And Creatively About Groups. Mais elle apprend par la bouche d’’none qu’Hippolyte aime Aricie. An Essay For College. Jalouse, elle d©cide de ne rien dire. Thinking Critically And Creatively. Malgr© l’intervention d’Aricie, Th©s©e demande Neptune de punir son fils. Le suicide d’’none, d©sesp©r©e de se voir condamn©e par PhЁdre, le trouble. Essay. Trop tard.

Un dragon, surgi de la mer sur ordre de Neptune, tue Hippolyte. And Creatively About Groups. PhЁdre confesse son crime Th©s©e et s’empoisonne. Th©s©e , roi de Tr©zЁne et d’AthЁnes, homme m»r, au pass© galant et h©roЇque. Essay Economic Development. PhЁdre , ©pouse d©§ue et tromp©e de Th©s©e, amoureuse d’Hippolyte, poursuivie par la haine ancestrale de la d©esse V©nus. Critically And Creatively Groups. Hippolyte , fils de Th©s©e et d’Antiope, complex© par la gloire de son pЁre et amoureux d’Aricie. The Lobster. ’none , nourrice, d©vou©e corps et ўme, de PhЁdre. Thinking Critically About Focus Groups. Aricie , jeune princesse courageuse, ©limin©e du trґne d’AthЁnes par Th©s©e qui, pour des raisons politiques, lui a interdit de se marier sous peine de mort.

Th©ramЁne, gouverneur d’Hippolyte. Your. IsmЁne, confidente d’Aricie. Thinking About Focus. Panope, femme de la suite de PhЁdre. English Learning. Gardes. R acine propose dans sa pr©face la clef de ce personnage ©ponyme de la piЁce. Thinking About Groups. La formule est c©lЁbre : « PhЁdre n’est ni tout fait coupable, ni tout fait innocente ». Economic. Cette ambiguЇt© fondamentale du personnage fait tout son int©rЄt dramatique: elle passe du registre de la noirceur celui du remords, de la violence la plus obscure de grands moments de lucidit©, ce qui suscite chez le spectateur la piti©. Thinking And Creatively Groups. PhЁdre est une figure tragiquement ©cartel©e. La culpabilit© de PhЁdre est d’abord une culpabilit© sociale et familiale : elle aime son beau-fils, Hippolyte, fils de Th©s©e et d’Antiope.

Elle ne respecte non plus son devoir d’©pouse puisqu’elle est reine: mari©e du roi Th©s©e, elle d©choit de son rang et trahit sa fonction. How Do An Essay. Enfin, elle est indigne du titre de mЁre: bien qu’ayant un fils de Th©s©e, Acamas, elle d©truit sa famille l©gitime par son amour pour Hippolyte. Mais cette culpabilit© n’est pas, au premier abord, de la responsabilit© de PhЁdre. Thinking About Focus. Sa passion est v©cue comme l’effet d’une machination divine, dont « la fille de Minos et de Pasipha© » n’est que l’instrument, l’ultime manifestation. Application Question. Son ascendance en effet explique quelques-uns des nombreux visages de PhЁdre dans la piЁce.

Il est impossible n©anmoins d’innocenter complЁtement PhЁdre la lumiЁre de cette lourde h©r©dit©. Critically And Creatively Focus Groups. Sa passion la d©vore, mais il faut remarquer combien sa volont© se garde d’aller dans un sens oppos© au flux qui l’entra®ne. A Dissertation Your. PhЁdre change ainsi, de maniЁre trЁs rapide, de registre passionnel : amoureuse (scЁne 3, acte I), apeur©e (scЁne 5, acte II), jalouse (scЁne 5, acte IV), repentante (scЁne 7, acte V), elle passe pas divers ©tats qui la ravagent au point qu’elle abdique tout pouvoir sur elle-mЄme. Critically And Creatively Groups. Sa raison sait Єtre de mauvaise foi lorsque son amour pour Hippolyte est en jeu. Application Question. La derniЁre scЁne de l’acte I le montre bien : PhЁdre, proche du suicide, r©pond aux exhortations d’’none en rejetant la responsabilit© de ses acteurs sur sa servante, et, pour camoufler son amour pour son beau-fils Hippolyte, elle le cache sous les apparences d’une pr©occupation maternelle pour son fils Acamas, dont elle pr©tend assurer l’avenir politique. Racine a donc bien pris soin de pr©senter son personnage dans les affres d’un amour d©vastateur, mais aussi de mettre en scЁne tous les m©andres emprunt©s par le d©sir, toutes les ruses de ce d©sir pour arriver ses fins et se jouer d’autrui comme de soi-mЄme, jusqu’ la mort. Thinking And Creatively About Groups. On notera que la principale figure de style qui caract©rise les propos de PhЁdre dans la piЁce est l’oxymore.

L’ўme de PhЁdre est « une obscure clart© », une « sombre lumiЁre »… T h©s©e est fils d’Eg©e, roi d’AthЁnes, et †thra, princesse de Tr©zЁne. China Economic Development. Elev© dans cette cit© par sa mЁre et son grand-pЁre, il n’apprend qu’ l’adolescence qui est son pЁre. Thinking About Focus. Il part alors combattre les Pallantides, les frЁres d’Aricie, qui pr©tendaient succ©der Eg©e, et devient l’h©ritier du trґne d’AthЁnes. Il a un fils, Hippolyte, puis, aprЁs la disparition d’Antiope, il ©pouse PhЁdre, dont il a eu deux fils, Acamas et D©mophon (jamais mentionn© par Racine dans la piЁce). Question. Th©s©e a donc un pass© glorieux. Thinking Critically About Focus. La piЁce retentit, par allusion ou r©cits ©piques, de ses exploits. Th©s©e, comme Hippolyte, a sa « faiblesse », et ce point faible, ce sont les femmes.

Ses aventures galantes sont ©voqu©es plusieurs reprises dans la piЁce, comme un thЁme r©current, au vers 23 (« jeunes erreurs »), aux vers 85-89, et son voyage en Epire, dont les dangers ont aliment© le bruit de la mort du roi, avait un motif de la mЄme trempe, puisqu’il s’agissait d’aider son ami Pirithoјs enlever la femme du tyran de cette contr©e. And Disadvantages. Th©s©e appara®t plutґt comme un s©ducteur fatigu©, prompt se jeter dans les bras de son ©pouse au retour de son exp©dition (scЁne 4, acte III). About Focus Groups. En outre, jamais Racine n’en fait un personnage ridicule: il conserve toujours sa qualit© de h©ros, envers qui les dieux eux-mЄmes, comme Neptune, ont des dettes. Le donjuanisme de Th©s©e ne serait encore qu’une « faiblesse » toute relative si le personnage ne manquait pas de lucidit©. Learning. Or Th©s©e est aveugle et cr©dule. About Focus. Lui, capable de revenir des Enfers et d’exploits h©roЇques sans pareil, il se r©vЁle piЁtre souverain et ne peut discerner temps les mesquines man“uvres d’une servante. A Dissertation. Il finit la trag©die en contemplant le malheur autour de lui, en pЁre accabl©, en mari abus©, en roi ©cras© par le destin. Cette image n©gative du h©ros est enfin renforc©e par le rґle qu’il joue dans la piЁce. Critically About Focus. Son existence s’oppose presque tous les personnages de la trag©die : sa femme qui ne peut aimer Hippolyte, son fils d’un premier lit ; ce fils, qui ne peut aimer Aricie, frapp©e par l’interdit royal d’©pouser quiconque ; Aricie, qui ne peut aimer Hippolyte pour la mЄme raison. Thesis. Th©s©e incarne l’obstacle par excellence, ce qui montre parfaitement la parenthЁse de l’acte II (l’acte des d©clarations), c’est- -dire o№, Th©s©e passant pour mort, les passions se libЁrent et s’expriment. R acine avait eu l’intention d’appeler sa piЁce PhЁdre et Hippolyte . Focus. Hippolyte a beau commencer la piЁce, son rґle est secondaire par rapport celui de sa belle mЁre ; le titre en d©finitive retenu le montre bien.

N©anmoins, le personnage d’Hippolyte n’est sans complexit© ni int©rЄt. Question. Dans sa pr©face, Racine souligne dans quelle mesure il s’est ©cart© de la l©gende antique, et s’en excuse : s’il n’a pas epris l’extrЄme perfection morale et physique qui caract©rise Hippolyte dans la tradition mythologique, c’est pour que la mort du personnage ne suscite pas un sentiment de r©volte et d’injustice chez le spectateur. Thinking And Creatively Focus. Racine veut respecter la lettre la prescription aristot©licienne : la trag©die doit engendre la piti©, et pour qu’il y ait piti©, il faut que le personnage ait une « faiblesse », c’est- -dire qu’il soit humain, proche du spectateur, qui doit pouvoir s’identifier. Threat. En faisant d’Hippolyte l’amant d’Aricie, il rend accessible son personnage. Groups. Le tragique, c’est humain. Racine pr©sente l’amour d’Hippolyte pour Aricie comme antith©tique au reste de sa personnalit©. Audio. Amateur de chasse et autres sports (vers 130-132), il semble vou© la prouesse solitaire de ceux de son pЁre.

Fils de Th©s©e et d’Antope, reine des Amazones, il pr©sente une parfaite « grandeur d’ўme ». Thinking About Focus Groups. Il sait garder le contrґle de lui-mЄme, lorsque PhЁdre lui avoue sa passion: il refuse de la frapper de son glaive (scЁne 5, acte II). You Write An Essay. Il fait preuve de fid©lit©, envers Aricie, qui vont ses derniЁres paroles (vers 1561-1566), et mЄme envers PhЁdre, qu’il refuse de d©noncer ou de couvrir d’opprobre : jamais il n’oublie qu’elle est reine, ©pouse de son pЁre (scЁne 5, acte II). Par toutes ces qualit©s, il se croit au-dessus des autres hommes, avant de prendre conscience de son amour pour Aricie : le voil devenu simplement un homme parmi les autres hommes, sujet aux lois de l’amour (vers 531-536). Thinking And Creatively Focus Groups. Il juge sa passion, comme un obstacle sur la route de l’h©roЇsme. China Threat India Development. Elle le conduit in©vitablement s’opposer son pЁre, puisque cet amour s’adresse pr©cis©ment celle que son pЁre lui refuse pour des raisons politiques : Aricie, descendante d’une famille qui a jadis r©gn© sur AthЁnes et que Th©s©e d©cim©e, ne doit pas avoir d’enfant qui puisse un jour r©clamer le trґne par leur ancЄtres. Thinking Critically Groups. L’amour d’Hippolyte d©stabilise le pouvoir de son pЁre : Hippolyte, comme Rodrigue dans Le Cid de Pierre Corneille, doit choisir entre l’honneur (Th©s©e) et l’amour (Aricie). Pr©cis©ment, c’est Th©s©e, plus Aricie, qui est la vraie « faiblesse » d’Hippolyte. Consider Essay Audio. Ce dernier n’est pas un h©ros, car il ne s’est pas encore ©mancip© du modЁle paternel. Thinking Critically About. Il p©rit finalement en raison de sa trop grande timidit© devant l’autorit© de Th©s©e: lorsque celui-ci l’accuse injustement d’avoir tent© d’abuser de PhЁdre, il se refuse d©noncer la machination de la reine, qu’il respecte malgr© tout comme la femme de son pЁre (scЁne 2, acte IV).

Le comportement qui caract©rise le mieux Hippolyte, finalement, c’est la fuite (vers 1717 ou encore 925-926). For College. C’est l que r©side toute l’ambiguit© de ce personnage : plein de vertu, aspirant un h©roЇsme digne de celui de son pЁre, Hippolyte a peur, aussi bien devant les sentiments de l’amour que devant le monde trouble du palais de Tr©zЁne. Thinking Critically About Focus Groups. Il rЄve d’affrontements au grand jour, avec un ennemi clairement d©sign© : il ne rencontre que des passions, celle de PhЁdre, mais aussi la sienne. Application. Ironie du sort : lorsqu’il quitte enfin Tr©zЁne et affronte un monstre, il en meurt. A ricie est une invention par rapport la tradition antique, qui ne relate aucun fait pr©cis son sujet, sinon qu’elle est la fille de Pallante et que ses frЁres, les Pallantidesm revendiquant le trґne d’Eg©e, ont ©t© massacr©s par Th©s©e. And Creatively. Si Racine s’est permis cette libert©, c’est que ce personnage joue un rґle important dans l’organisation psychologique de la piЁce. Elle incarne en effet un maillon dans la cha®ne infernale de l’amour et de la haine qui lie les protagonistes de la trag©die : PhЁdre aime Hippolyte qui aime Aricie qui aime Hippolyte, Th©s©e ayant tout pouvoir sur chacun de ces personnages.

Aricie appara®t donc comme la jeune fille amoureuse par excellence. How Do An Essay. Ainsi est-elle pr©sent©e comme « jeune » (vers 50), « aimable » (vers 53), rebelle l’amour comme Hippolyte (vers 433) avant d’y succomber comme Hippolyte. Thinking Critically About Groups. A cela s’ajoutent un sens de la justice (vers 1584) qui se r©vЁle lorsqu’elle voit Th©s©e ©couter les calomnies d’’none contre Hippolyte. Personnage un peu terne dans sa candeur morale et naЇve, elle est victorieuse de sa rivale dans le c“ur d’Hippolyte, mais cette victoire, fort relative (son amant p©rit), souligne la situation path©tique de PhЁdre plus qu’elle ne met en valeur Aricie. An Essay. Elle ne doute jamais, ni de son bon droit, ni de son amour, qu’elle s’est partag©. Racine a su donner toutefois Aricie une ©paisseur humaine, en la dotant elle aussi d’une « faiblesse » qui n’est sugg©r©e. Critically About. Cette ©paisseur s’affirme mesure que se d©roule la piЁce.

Aricie aime sa « gloire » : ainsi con§oit-elle cet amour dont elle tire orgueil (vers 449-453). Learning Thesis. Jamais, cependant, cet orgueil quelque peu vindicatif ne va jusqu’ la conscience du personnage : la sinc©rit© d’Aricie est entiЁre dans ses sentiments pour Hippolyte, sa r©action la mort de son amant le prouve. About Groups. La piЁce s’achЁve sur l’image d’une jeune fille bris©e. ’ none est un personnage secondaire qui jour un rґle fondamental dans la piЁce. English Learning. Elle appara®t comme la face d’ombre de PhЁdre. Thinking Critically About Focus Groups. Mais, en fait, elle ne se cantonne pas ce rґle.

Les liens qui unissent ’none et sa ma®tresse sont trЁs forts : nourrice aim©e, ’none est la confidente par excellence. Consider. Elle incarne la voix de la raison quand PhЁdre s’abandonne sa folie, et de la vie quand PhЁdre parle de se donner la mort. Racine n’enferme pas son personnage dans une codification fig©e. Thinking Critically And Creatively About Focus Groups. Car ’none la raisonnable en vient jouer l’entremetteuse (scЁne 1, acte III), puis calomnier Hippolyte. You Write An Essay. Les conseils qu’’none prodigue PhЁdre n’ont rien d’objectif ni mЄme de raisonnable, mais sont motiv©s par un d©vouement sans bornes qui ressemble fort une passion sans limite. Critically And Creatively Groups. Ђ la fin de la piЁce, les accusations qu’elle porte contre Hippolyte lui apparaissent comme une faute morale, qu’elle justifie cependant pas sa volont© de sauver PhЁdre tout prix du d©shonneur. How Do You Write. Son principal rґle est d’engager PhЁdre agir, ne pas s’abandonner elle-mЄme: elle est ainsi un moteur fondamental de la tension tragique, jusqu’ la mort, la sienne et celle de sa ma®tresse. ’none est une passionn©e. Thinking Critically And Creatively. Elle met un acharnement d©truire tout ce qui s’oppose sa passion. English Thesis. Elle ne comprend pas qu’Hippolyte se refuse PhЁdre et seules une haine farouche, une jalousie latente, peuvent la conduire calomnier le fils de Th©s©e devant son pЁre, pour l’honneur et pour l’amour de PhЁdre. Thinking Critically And Creatively About Focus Groups. ’none incarne un amour rentr©, une passion noire d’autant plus violente qu’elle n’a pas le droit de s’exprimer, ne serait-ce qu’en raison de son inf©riorit© sociale. Essay. Sa mort est l’aboutissement in©luctable de cet amour impossible.

A u fil des actes et des scЁnes, Racine met en scЁne la d©ch©ance d’un personnage. Thinking Critically About. La structure de la piЁce est d’une impeccable rigueur, o№ les ©chos et les parallЁles symbolisent la marche d’une fatalit© implacable. Consider Audio. De la passion avou©e (acte I) la passion d©clar©e (acte II), de la passion d©nonc©e (acte III) la passion meurtriЁre (acte IV) et punie (acte V), PhЁdre vit en cinq actes sa passion sur tous les mode, et s’achemine fatalement la mort. Groups. PhЁdre est la chronique d’une d©ch©ance annonc©e. Le premier acte a pour mission d’exposer tous les ©l©ments de l’intrigue : en introduisant le spectateur en pleine action, dans la situation conflictuelle de la piЁce, Racine met en scЁne une imbrication de sentiments et d’enjeux politiques qui vont faire la trag©die. Application. L’acte d’exposition se compose de cinq scЁnes. Focus Groups. Deux sont consacr©es des aveux, ceux d’Hippolyte son « gouverneur » (pr©cepteur) Th©ramЁne (scЁne 1), et ceux de PhЁdre sa nourrice ’none (scЁne 3) ; deux autres sont des scЁnes de transition: la sortie d’Hippolyte l’arriv©e de PhЁdre (scЁne 2), et les encouragements d’’none sa ma®tresse (scЁne 5) ; enfin, une scЁne expose les ©l©ments qui vont servir, dans l’acte suivant, nouer l’action : Panope, servante de PhЁdre, vient annoncer la mort de Th©s©e (scЁne 4). Le deuxiЁme acte, l’acte des p©rip©ties dans la trag©die classique, pr©sente les effets de l’annonce de la mort de Th©s©e, en six scЁnes. Consider The Lobster Audio. Ce mЄme acte oppose l’amour partag© d’Aricie et d’Hippolyte dans les scЁnes 1 et 2, l’amour solitaire et destructeur de PhЁdre dans les scЁnes 5 et 6, les scЁnes 3 et 4 (vingt vers elles deux) assurant la transition entre les deux ensembles. Thinking Critically And Creatively Focus Groups. Le deuxiЁme acte contient encore un aveu, celui d’Aricie qui confesse sa confidente, IsmЁne, son amour pour Hippolyte Aricie (scЁne 2) et de PhЁdre Hippolyte (scЁne 5). How Do An Essay For College. Ce sont elles, les v©ritables p©rip©ties de l’acte, c’est- -dire des ©v©nements qui contribuent augmenter la tension dramatique de la piЁce.

Le troisiЁme acte de PhЁdre est bel et bien celui du « n“ud » de la piЁce, acte o№, dans une tension toujours croissante, les oppositions, les passions contadictoires, la fatalit©, se d©voilent cr»ment et se nouent. Thinking Critically Focus Groups. Le retour de Th©s©e est la principale p©rip©tie de l’“uvre, au centre mЄme de la piЁce : Th©s©e repr©sente l’obstacle majeu la fois la passion de PhЁdre, sa femme, l’©gard d’Hippolyte, et l’amour d’Hippolyte, son fils, pour Aricie. Essay China Economic. Et l’apparition de Th©s©e va conduire PhЁdre et Hippolyte non plus seulement des aveux ou des d©clarations, mais la faute. Critically And Creatively About. En six scЁnes, le troisiЁme acte se noue selon une parfaiye ordonnance. Avec ses six scЁnes, le quatriЁme acte repose, lui aussi, sur une construction dramatique impeccable, faite pour accro®tre la tension qui culminera dans le dernier acte. Application. Il met en scЁne une violence accrue des rapports entre les personnages, exacerb©e par la « catastrophe » de la scЁne 4 : en r©v©lant PhЁdre l’amour qu’Hippolyte porte Aricie, Th©s©e pr©cipite les personnages dans leurs passions extrЄmes, vers issue fatale.

Le dernier acte est celui o№ se d©nouent les conflits mis en ©vidence au troisiЁme acte. Thinking Critically Focus. Trois conditions devaient Єtre remplies par les dramaturges selon les th©oriciens de l’©poque : ce d©nouement devait Єtre l’aboutissement n©cessaire des passions des divers personnages ; il devait r©gler de maniЁre complЁte le destin de tous les protagonistes ; enfin, il devait Єtre pr©sent© dans une acc©l©ration de l’action. Buying Your. Le cinquiЁme acte est divis© en deux ensembles de scЁnes: le premier (scЁne 1 3) montre les derniЁres tentatives d’Hippolyte et d’Aricie pour sauver leur amour et leur propre personne ; la scЁne 4, avec le monologue de Th©s©e, fait figure de scЁne de transition, avant que l’acte ne bascule dans une suite de morts (scЁne 5 7), qui interviennent selon une ordre hi©rarchique et selon l’importance des personnages dans la piЁce : d’abord la mort dramatique d’’none (scЁne 5), puis la mort h©roЇque d’Hippolyte (scЁne 6), enfin la mort tragique, la seule repr©sent©e sur scЁne, de PhЁdre (scЁne 7). Cinq actes mЁnent donc la mort trois personnages, PhЁdre, Hippolyte et ’none, et plongent dans la douleur les survivants, Th©s©e et Aricie. L a construction de la piЁce n’est pas le seul ©l©ment qui donne au spectateur le sentiment d’une ©crasante fatalit©. Thinking Critically Focus. L’une des rЁgles de la trag©die classique, l’unit© d’action, permet Racine de condenser l’action et d’augmenter la tension de maniЁre exacerb©e.

En deux heures environ de rep©sentation th©ўtrale, Racine met en scЁne une trag©die qui se d©roule en une journ©e. Essay China. L’unit© temporelle de la journ©e pr©sente une valeur symbolique : elle donne l’impression d’une clґture, et ne laisse rien derriЁre elle. Tout le problЁme est de donner ce temps symbolique un aspect vraisemblable. And Creatively About Groups. Une action humaine, parce qu’elle d©pend d’une infinit© d’autres actions, s’inscrit dans un temps illimit©. Buying. Au th©ўtre, compte tenu de la dur©e de la repr©sentation, il faut faire des choix. Thinking Critically Focus. D’o№ la rЁgle de l’unit© d’action : il peut y avoir plusieurs actions, mais une seule pr©occupation doit pr©dominer pour qu’ la fin de la piЁce le spectateur ait le sentiment d’un achЁvement. Racine fait des choix : le temps de sa trag©die est s©lectif, dans la mesure o№ il ne repr©sente pas sur scЁne les ©v©nements qu’il jude moins importants.

Par exemple, l’acte IV commence quand d©j ’none a expos© Th©s©e toutes ses accusations calomnieuses contre Hippolyte. How Do You Write For College. En outre, le temps de la trag©die est h©t©rogЁne. Critically And Creatively About Focus Groups. Par exemple, la derniЁre apparition d’Hippolyte intervient dans la scЁne 1 de l’acte V, o№ il dit adieu Aricie ; la scЁne 6 du mЄme acte, surgit Th©ramЁne qui raconte la mort de son ©lЁve. Buying A Dissertation Your. En temps r©el, il faut environ vingt minutes une demi-heure pour repr©senter les scЁnes 1 6 de ce dernier acte. Thinking Critically About. Racine cherche ici condenser les ©v©nements : en juxtaposant le r©cit de la mort d’Hippolyte et la mort de PhЁdre, il donne la sensation d’un achЁvement. L’unit© de temps comme l’unit© d’action sont donc deux moyens pour le dramaturge de mettre en scЁne certaines conceptions du monde, par des effets po©tiques qui paraissent le plus vraisemblables possible. Profil d’une “uvre : PhЁdre (12 sujets corrig©s) PhЁdre (©tude de l’“uvre)

PhЁdre (Coffret Collector 2 DVD) par Hady · Published 18 juin 2012 · Last modified 31 janvier 2014. par Hady · Published 16 juin 2012. par Hady · Published 17 juin 2012 · Last modified 22 ao»t 2015.

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2017 U.S. CELLULAR ® MOST VALUABLE COACH FAN VOTE CONTEST. NO PURCHASE IS NECESSARY TO PARTICIPATE OR WIN A PRIZE. Making a purchase will not increase the chances of any eligible person or school winning a prize. The Contest is thinking about focus, no way sponsored, endorsed, administered by, or associated with Facebook, Inc. Essay Advantages. ( “Facebook” ), Instagram, Inc. Critically And Creatively About Focus Groups. ( “Instagram” ), Twitter, Inc. ( “Twitter” ), or Snap Inc. ( “Snapchat” ). Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and Snapchat are not affiliated with Sponsor in any way. For purposes hereof: (a) a “Nominator” is a participant who submits a nomination in the Contest (an “Entry” ); (b) a “Voter” is a participant who submits a vote in consider the lobster the Contest; (c) a “Nominee” is thinking focus groups, a participant who is nominated by a Nominator in buying your the Contest; (d) the “Website” is; (e) an “Eligible State” means CA, IL, IN, IA, KS, MD, ME, MI, MO, MN, NE, NH, NC, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, SC, TN, TX, VT, VA, WA, WI and WV; and (f) an “Eligible Zip Code” means a zip code within U.S.

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Subject to verification of eligibility and compliance with these Official Rules, the Nominees named in the fifty (50) Entries that receive the highest scores from the Screening Judges will be declared the “Top 50 Coaches” and will advance to the “Final 15” voting processes described herein. No prize will be awarded for being named one of the “Top 50 Coaches.” In the event of a tie, tied Entries will be re-judged based 100% on Nominee’s community impact. All Nominees will be judged equally on the basis of the stated judging criteria, without regard to thinking focus race, color, religion, national origin, sex, gender, disability, familial status, or any other protected class. The “Top 50 Coaches” and their respective school officials, including, but not limited to, athletics staff and colleagues, and consider the lobster audio community members selected by Administrator, may be contacted by critically and creatively, Administrator for the purpose of answering additional questions related to a Nominee’s leadership qualities and impact on the school and community, and may be asked to provide additional information including verification of the Nominee’s eligibility requirements and phones advantages and disadvantages good standing in the community (i.e., no history of criminal activity or egregious offenses, as determined by Sponsor and thinking and creatively groups Administrator), and reasonable cooperation in activities related to the Contest. Sponsor reserves the right to you write an essay for college conduct a background check on the Top 50 Coaches and reserves the right in its sole discretion to disqualify any Nominee based on the results of about focus groups, such background check. China Threat India Development. If a Nominee is deemed ineligible based on about focus groups, the eligibility requirements of these Official Rules, or if he/she has been convicted of a criminal or otherwise egregious offense which, in the opinion of thesis, Sponsor and Administrator, is contrary to the goodwill with which Sponsor wishes to critically and creatively about groups be associated in connection with the essay india economic development, Contest, that Nominee will be disqualified. If a Nominee is disqualified for any reason, the Nominee who received the next highest score from the critically, Screening Judges will be declared one of the “Top 50 Coaches”.

DETERMINATION OF “FINAL 15 COACHES” : During the Final 15 Voting Period, the “Top 50 Coaches” and a portion of the essay(s), as selected by Administrator, from which they were originally nominated, together with basic information collected from each of the Nominees and their colleagues and community, will be posted on the Website, with content similarly posted for essay china development, all Entries. Eligible Voters who wish to thinking and creatively focus groups vote may register to essay on mobile phones advantages vote in the Contest by: (a) creating an account (a “Contest Account” ) by entering first name, last name, date of birth, email address, zip code, mobile phone number, and a password, answering a question on whether or not they are a current U.S. Cellular customer, and agreeing to abide by these Official Rules; or (b) signing in to an existing Contest Account and about groups agreeing to abide by these Official Rules. Once registered, eligible Voters may vote for threat india development, one (1) or more of critically, their favorite Nominees from among the essay china threat india economic, “Top 50 Coaches.” A Voter may vote for as many different Nominees as he/she wishes in a single day during the Final 15 Voting Period; however, Voters may not vote more than once per day for any one of the thinking and creatively groups, “Top 50 Coaches.” At the conclusion of the Final 15 Voting Period, all votes will be tallied and essay china the fifteen (15) eligible Nominees who receive the highest number of valid votes will be declared the “Final 15 Coaches.” The “Final 15 Coaches” will advance to the Grand Prize voting and judging processes described herein. Subject to verification of eligibility and compliance with these Official Rules, the high school by thinking and creatively focus, which each of the “Final 15 Coaches” were employed as of the start date of the Nomination Period will each receive a donation of Five Thousand Dollars ($5,000) as described in learning more detail herein. In addition, Sponsor and Administrator will host an event at thinking about focus each such school recognizing its coach for being named one of the “Final 15 Coaches.” As a condition of a Nominee being named one of the essay advantages, “Final 15 Coaches” and thinking critically and creatively advancing to the Grand Prize voting and judging processes described herein, each of the Nominees and the schools by which they were employed as of the start date of the Nomination Period must agree to provide the following: Signed affidavits of consider essay, eligibility and liability and publicity releases and assignment of and creatively about focus, rights, to the extent permitted by law, from the Nominee, Nominator and the school; At least one (1) photo of the Nominee; and An agreement permitting Sponsor, Administrator, and india development their designees access to critically about the school for an event with a film crew. If a Nominee is english learning, disqualified for critically focus groups, any reason, the Nominee who received the next highest vote total will be declared one of the thesis, “Final 15 Coaches.” In the event of a tie in either round of voting, Sponsor will determine the Nominee who will be one of the “Final 15 Coaches,” or the Grand Prize winner (as applicable), based on the judging criteria listed above.

DETERMINATION OF THE WINNER : During the Grand Prize Voting Period, the “Final 15 Coaches” and a portion of the essay(s), as selected by Administrator, from which they were originally nominated, together with basic information collected from each of the Nominees and their colleagues and community, along with video content from a live event with each Nominee, with similar content for critically and creatively, all Nominees, will be posted on essay china threat india development, the Website. Eligible Voters who have not previously registered for the Contest and who wish to vote may register to vote in this phase of the Contest by: (a) signing in critically and creatively about focus with an existing Contest Account and agreeing to abide by these Official Rules; or (b) creating a Contest Account and agreeing to abide by these Official Rules. Eligible Voters may vote for one (1) or more of their favorite Nominees from consider among the “Final 15 Coaches.” A Voter may vote for as many different “Final 15 Coaches” as he/she wishes in a single day during the Grand Prize Voting Period; however, Voters may not vote more than once per day for any one of the “Final 15 Coaches.” At the conclusion of the thinking critically, Grand Prize Voting Period, all votes will be tallied, and the total vote count for each Nominee shall comprise twenty percent (20%) of the final score for each of the you write an essay for college, “Final 15 Coaches” to determine the Winner, as further described below. Thinking About Groups. During the Grand Prize Judging Period, a qualified panel of program judges selected by Sponsor and Administrator (the “Program Judges” ) will review and evaluate the essays, biographical information, and video content featuring each of the “Final 15 Coaches,” with similar content provided for all “Final 15 Coaches.” The Program Judges will evaluate the china threat india economic development, materials and judge on the basis of the following criteria: Nominee’s community impact (20%); Nominee’s school impact (20%); Nominee’s leadership impact (20%); Nominee’s proposed plans regarding distribution of the Grand Prize (20%); and Nominee’s votes from the Grand Prize Voting Period (20%). At the conclusion of the Grand Prize Judging Period, the determinations of the Program Judges will be tallied by Sponsor and thinking and creatively about focus Administrator to comprise a final score for each of the “Final 15 Coaches.” The “Final 15 Coach” who receives the highest such score will be the Winner subject to verification of eligibility and compliance with these Official Rules. The Winner will be announced on how do an essay, or about November 20, 2017. The Winner may be asked to critically about focus groups sign and return, via email, an affidavit of china threat development, eligibility and liability and publicity release, to the extent permitted by law, as a condition of winning or he/she may be disqualified and his/her prize may be forfeited.

If the Winner is disqualified for thinking critically focus groups, any reason, his/her prize may be awarded to the Nominee who received the next-highest final score. The following paragraphs are applicable to each of the Voting Periods: Any attempt to use multiple email addresses, different IP addresses, robotic or automatic devices, third-party services, incentives, bribes, vote-swapping sites, redirect links, disguised or fraudulent links, or other tactics to place more than one (1) vote per Nominee per learning thesis day will result in disqualification of the responsible Voter from participation in the Contest, and all associated votes will be void. If it is determined that a Nominee was acting in about focus groups collusion with such disqualified Voter, that Nominee will be disqualified and thesis he/she and his/her school will be ineligible to receive a prize in the Contest. Votes that result from a technical error or malfunction of any kind including, but not limited to, malfunction of servers or internet connections, will be void. Thinking About Focus. Voters shall follow all on-screen prompts and essay development instructions to place a vote. Any Voter who disparages any Nominee or his/her related high school in social media or elsewhere, as determined by Sponsor or Administrator in their sole discretion, will be disqualified from participation in the Contest. Votes made through a mobile device may incur standard related charges based on the Voter’s service plan with his/her carrier. All such charges are the sole responsibility of the Voter.

Voters are advised to critically groups consult their service plans and provider agreements prior to voting via a mobile device. Essay. FINAL 15 DONATION: Subject to thinking about focus groups verification of eligibility and compliance with these Official Rules, the high school by essay threat india economic development, which each of the “Final 15 Coaches” were employed as of the start date of the Nomination Period will each receive a donation of Five Thousand Dollars ($5,000) from thinking groups Sponsor (the “Final 15 Donation”). Application Question. Each school is responsible for any tax consequences related to acceptance of the thinking and creatively about focus groups, Final 15 Donation. The Final 15 Donation must be accepted by an authorized representative of the question, school, who may be required to sign and return a donation acceptance form with their taxpayer identification number included, and an affidavit of eligibility and liability and publicity release, to the extent permitted by and creatively, law, as a condition of application, receiving the Final 15 Donation. GRAND PRIZE DONATION: Subject to verification of thinking groups, eligibility and compliance with these Official Rules, the Winner may choose the charitable organization (or their own athletic department at their school) to be the recipient of a donation of thesis, Fifty Thousand Dollars ($50,000) from Sponsor (the “Grand Prize Donation”), provided that such decision by the Winner is subject to the review and approval of Sponsor. The school or charitable organization is responsible for any tax consequences related to and creatively groups acceptance of the Grand Prize Donation.

The Grand Prize Donation must be accepted by an authorized representative of the school or charitable organization, who may be required to sign and return a donation acceptance form with their taxpayer identification number included, and an affidavit of eligibility and liability and publicity release, to the extent permitted by english, law, as a condition of receiving the and creatively focus, Grand Prize Donation. Sponsor will make the final decision as to who will receive the Grand Prize Donation. GRAND PRIZE TRIP PACKAGE: Subject to verification of application, eligibility and compliance with these Official Rules, the Winner will receive a trip for focus, him/her and you write one (1) guest to Orlando, Florida from approximately January 2, 2018 to January 5, 2018, during which the Winner will be honored at critically groups the Under Armour All-America Game (the “All-America Game” ). The Winner may also be included in an in-game video feature in the ESPN broadcast of the All-America Game; inclusion is not guaranteed. The trip will include roundtrip, coach class air transportation from the major U.S. gateway airport nearest to the Winner’s residence (as determined by buying a dissertation your, Administrator and Sponsor) to Orlando, Florida; three (3) nights’ standard hotel accommodations (room rate and tax for one room, double occupancy with guest); necessary ground transportation in Orlando, Florida (as determined by Administrator and about focus Sponsor); two (2) theme park passes good for select days of the trip dates; spending money for the winner in the amount of three hundred Dollars ($300.00); and a gift bag of Under Armour gear of Administrator’s choice. If the Winner resides within a one hundred (100)-mile radius of Orlando, Florida, ground transportation will be provided in lieu of air transportation and no compensation will be provided for the difference in value. The Approximate Retail Value ( “ARV” ) of the consider the lobster audio, Grand Prize is Two Thousand Five Hundred Dollars ($2,500). All details of the in-game video feature are in critically focus groups Sponsor’s sole discretion and Winner agrees to participate if requested to do so by how do, Sponsor.

Telephone calls, meals, gratuities, incidental hotel expenses, personal expenses, souvenirs, additional ground transportation, and all other expenses not specified herein as being included in the trip prize are the responsibility solely of the critically and creatively focus groups, Winner. Administrator and Sponsor reserve the right to structure travel destinations, routes, and hotel selection at their sole discretion. Travel is subject to the terms and conditions set forth in how do an essay these Official Rules and those set forth by the Administrator’s and Sponsor’s airline carrier of choice as detailed in thinking critically the passenger ticket contract. Upon receipt and verification of the eligibility of the Winner, the Winner will be notified via phone or email regarding the specific travel details of application question, his/her prize. Critically And Creatively About Focus. The Winner and guest must travel together on same itinerary. The guest of the thesis, Winner must be at least the age of majority in the guest’s state of residence, subject to the following limitation only: a guest may be a Minor if the guest is the child or legal ward of the Winner. The guest will be required to sign and thinking critically about return a liability and publicity release prior to ticketing of travel as a condition of essay china india economic, accompanying the Winner on the prize trip. If the guest is a permissible Minor in accordance with these Official Rules, the liability and publicity release must be signed and returned by the Winner. If the Winner chooses to travel without a guest, no compensation will be awarded in thinking focus groups lieu thereof.

Once a travel guest is learning thesis, selected, he/she may not be substituted, except in Administrator’s and and creatively focus groups Sponsor’s sole and absolute discretion. The ARV of all prizes awarded in the Contest is One Hundred Twenty Seven Thousand Five Hundred Dollars ($127,500). Actual value of the Grand Prize may vary based on point of departure and airfare fluctuations. Any difference between the stated ARV and the actual value of the prize will not be awarded. All federal, state and local income taxes on the prizes are the responsibility of each recipient. A Dissertation. Each recipient will be issued an thinking and creatively about focus groups IRS Form 1099 for the value of the prize received. Recipients are advised to seek independent counsel regarding the question, tax implications of accepting their respective prizes.

The Winner and his/her guest must obtain all necessary identification and travel documents required for travel. The Winner must be available to travel on the trip dates selected by Administrator and Sponsor, and the Winner must participate as requested in the All-America Game, or he/she will be disqualified and thinking critically focus groups his/her prize may be forfeited in its entirety. Travel reservations for the Winner and guest must be made through Administrator. Question. Neither Administrator nor Sponsor shall be responsible for critically and creatively focus groups, any cancellations, delays, diversions, or substitution or any act or omissions whatsoever by the air carriers, hotels, or any other persons providing any prize-related services or accommodations. Lost, mutilated, or stolen airline tickets or tickets to the All-America Game will not be replaced. Prizes cannot be transferred, assigned, redeemed for cash, sold, offered at auction, or substituted, except at Sponsor’s and Administrator’s sole discretion or as provided herein. Sponsor and application Administrator may substitute a prize or portion thereof of equal or greater value if a prize or portion thereof becomes unavailable for any reason.

RELEASE: Acceptance of any prize constitutes permission to critically and creatively focus groups use the application question, recipient’s name, biographical information, city and state, voice, statements, video feature and thinking and creatively about focus likeness in commerce and in all media worldwide, including but not limited to social media, for advertising, publicity, and trade purposes without additional compensation, notice, or approval and, the recipient (and his/her guest, with respect to the Grand Prize) disclaim any ownership rights of such advertising, publicity, and trade material, except where prohibited by law. By acceptance of consider audio, a prize or by submitting an Entry, each Nominator (or his/her parent or legal guardian if he/she is a Minor) and Nominee represent that he/she has complied with all of these Official Rules and about focus agree to release Sponsor, Administrator, Samsung, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter,Snapchat,and each of their respective parent companies, subsidiaries, affiliates, advertising or promotion agencies,and the directors, officers, employees and phones advantages and disadvantages agents of each of the foregoing (collectively,the “Released Parties” ) from and against any and all claims and liability for any injuries, including but not limited to and creatively focus personal injury, death, loss,damage, or expenseof any kind arising from the lobster audio or in connection with participation in the Contestor the thinking critically focus, acceptance, possession, use,or misuse of a prize or participation in buying a dissertation your prize-related activities, if applicable (including any travel related thereto)or claims based on right of publicity, right of privacy,or defamation.Each prize recipientacknowledgesthat the ReleasedParties have not made,nor are in any manner responsible or liable for,any warranty, representation, or guarantee, express or implied, in fact or in law, relative to any prize or portion thereof, including but not limited to its quality, mechanical condition,or fitness for a particular purpose. RIGHTS GRANTED: By submitting an Entry, each Nominator (or his/her parent or legal guardian if he/she is a Minor) irrevocably and forever grants and assigns to Sponsor all worldwide rights, title, and interest in thinking and creatively about groups and to phones advantages his/her Entry and all works derived from it including, but not limited to, all intellectual property rights and agrees that Sponsor and Administrator and their respective licensees may reproduce, edit, market, store, distribute, have distributed, publicly and privately display, communicate, publicly and privately perform, transmit, have transmitted, create derivative works based upon, and promote an Entry or portions of an Entry (as such may be edited and thinking critically about groups modified by Sponsor or Administrator in their sole discretion) for editorial, commercial, promotional, and application question all other purposes including, without limitation, posting on Sponsor-affiliated websites, social and digital media sites, and/or other Sponsor-selected media, without any kind of critically and creatively about, payment or royalty to the Nominator. Consider. Each Nominator (or his/her parent or legal guardian if he/she is thinking and creatively focus, a Minor) expressly waives all rights to review or approve any use that Sponsor or Administrator make of china threat economic development, his/her Entry in thinking and creatively about groups accordance with these Official Rules. By submitting an Entry, each Nominator (or his/her parent or legal guardian if he/she is essay on mobile, a Minor) further agrees to waive all rights of attribution if his/her Entry is used by critically and creatively focus, Sponsor or anyone Sponsor authorizes, and to buying waive any moral rights in and to his/her Entry. By submitting an Entry, each Nominator (or his/her parent or legal guardian if he/she is a Minor) agrees that his/her Entry is gratuitous, unsolicited, and without restriction, and will not place Sponsor or Administrator under any obligations other than those contained in these Official Rules, and that Sponsor is free to disclose the ideas contained in thinking critically and creatively focus an Entry on a non-confidential basis to anyone or otherwise use the ideas therein without any compensation to the Nominator.

Each Nominator (or his/her parent or legal guardian if he/she is a Minor) further acknowledges that Sponsor does not waive any rights to consider the lobster use similar or related ideas previously known to Sponsor, or developed by its employees, or obtained from sources other than the thinking and creatively groups, Nominator. Each Nominator (or his/her parent or legal guardian if he/she is a Minor) further acknowledges that he/she will not instigate, support, maintain, or authorize any action or lawsuit against a dissertation your Sponsor or Administrator on the basis that any use of his/her Entry infringes any of his/her rights as creator of such Entry. By submitting an Entry, each Nominator (or his/her parent or legal guardian if he/she is a Minor) understands and acknowledges that he/she will not now or in the future be paid or compensated in thinking focus groups any way for an Entry or for consider audio, granting Sponsor or Administrator any of the rights set out in these Official Rules, provided, however, that in the event a Nominator’s image is used in a television commercial subject to the SAG-AFTRA Commercials Contract, the Nominator (or his/her parent or legal guardian if he/she is a Minor) agrees to sign and be bound by the terms and and creatively focus groups conditions of a dissertation, such standard contract and to be paid the minimum applicable compensation set by the collective bargaining entity. Thinking About Focus. Each Nominator (or his/her parent or legal guardian if he/she is a Minor) further acknowledges that neither Sponsor nor Administrator is obligated to make use of any of the rights granted in these Official Rules. By submitting an Entry, each Nominator (or his/her parent or legal guardian if he/she is a Minor) represents that his/her Entry conforms to essay phones advantages and disadvantages the requirements and restrictions set forth in these Official Rules, and critically and creatively focus groups agrees that Sponsor and Administrator, in their sole discretion, may remove an Entry and disqualify an how do for college Entry and Nominator from the Contest if they believe, in their sole discretion, that an Entry fails to conform to these Official Rules in any way. And Creatively About Groups. If the Nominee named in the disqualified Entry is not nominated in the Contest by and disadvantages, any person other than the disqualified Nominator, then that Nominee will also be disqualified from the Contest. Sponsor and Administrator may, at any time, require any Nominator (or his/her parent or legal guardian if he/she is a Minor) to execute documents to confirm the thinking and creatively focus, grant of consider essay, rights hereunder and groups failure to do so may result in you write disqualification. MISCELLANEOUS: The Released Parties are not responsible for: (a) electronic transmissions, Entries, or votes that are lost, late, stolen, incomplete, illegible, damaged, garbled, destroyed, misdirected, or not received by Sponsor or Administrator for any reason; (b) any problems or technical malfunctions, errors, omissions, interruptions, deletions, defects, delays in operation or transmission, communication failures or human error that may occur in the transmission, receipt or processing of Entries or votes, or for deletion, theft or destruction of, unauthorized access to, or alteration of, Entries or votes; (c) failed or unavailable hardware, network, or software; (d) causes beyond Sponsor’s reasonable control that jeopardize the administration, security, fairness, integrity, or proper conduct of the Contest; (e) any Entries or votes submitted in thinking critically about focus groups a manner that is not expressly allowed under these Official Rules; all such Entries and votes will be disqualified; (f) incorrect or inaccurate entry information whether caused by Nominees, Nominators, or Voters, tampering, hacking, or by any of the equipment or programming associated with or utilized in the Contest; (g) any typographical or other error in any printing or advertising relating to the Contest, in the administration or execution of the Contest, in the tabulation of votes or in the announcement of the “Top 50 Coaches,” the “Final 15 Coaches,” recipients of the prize donations, or the Winner; (h) cheating or fraud by any Nominee, Nominator, or Voter; or (i) damage to any person’s computer related to or resulting from participating in the Contest. All incomplete or non-conforming Entries and votes will be disqualified. If, for any reason, the Contest cannot be executed as planned for reasons including, but not limited to, any printing, administrative, human or other error of any kind, transmission failure, infection by computer virus, bugs, tampering, unauthorized intervention, fraud, technical failures, or any other causes beyond the control of Sponsor that corrupt or affect the security, administration, fairness, integrity or proper conduct of the Contest, or if the Contest is china india economic, compromised or becomes corrupted in any way, electronically or otherwise, Sponsor reserves the thinking focus groups, right, in its sole discretion, to cancel, terminate, modify, or suspend the Contest and, if terminated, to china india economic determine the thinking critically about focus groups, potential Winner from among all eligible, non-suspect Entries received prior to the date and time of termination using the english learning, judging procedure and criteria outlined above with respect to the Program Judges; no other prizes will be awarded. Administrator and Sponsor reserve the right, in their sole discretion, to disqualify any individual they find to be tampering with the critically and creatively groups, entry or voting process or the operation of the Contest, to be acting in violation of these Official Rules or any laws, or to be attempting to undermine the legitimate operation of the Contest by cheating, hacking, deception, misappropriation, infringement, or any other unfair playing practices, poor sportsmanship, or to be acting with the intention of annoying, abusing, threatening, or harassing any Nominee, Nominator, Voter, Sponsor, Administrator, or their respective schools and representatives.

CAUTION: ANY ATTEMPT TO DELIBERATELY DAMAGE THE WEBSITE OR UNDERMINE THE LEGITIMATE OPERATION OF THE CONTEST MAY BE A VIOLATION OF CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAWS AND SHOULD SUCH AN ATTEMPT BE MADE, ADMINISTRATOR AND SPONSOR RESERVE THE RIGHT TO DISQUALIFY AND SEEK DAMAGES AND OTHER REMEDIES (INCLUDING ATTORNEYS’ FEES) FROM ANY SUCH INDIVIDUAL TO THE FULLEST EXTENT OF THE LAW, INCLUDING CRIMINAL PROSECUTION AND SEEKING CIVIL REDRESS. PRIVACY: Any personally identifiable information collected in how do for college connection with a Nominator’s, Nominee’s, or Voter’s participation in thinking critically and creatively the Contest will be used by Sponsor, its affiliates, and agents only for purposes of the the lobster audio, proper administration and critically about groups fulfillment of the Contest, as described in buying these Official Rules, and in any manner consistent with Sponsor’s Privacy Policy, available at DISPUTES; VENUE; GOVERNING LAW: By participating, each Nominator, Nominee, and Voter (and parent or legal guardian for any Minor) agrees that: (a) any and all disputes, claims, and causes of action arising out focus groups, of, or connected with, the Contest or the prizes, shall be resolved individually, without resort to an essay any form of critically about groups, class action, and exclusively by the appropriate federal, state, or local court located in Cook County, Illinois; (b) any and all claims, judgments and awards shall be limited to actual out-of-pocket costs incurred, including but not limited to costs associated with entering the Contest, but in no event attorneys’ fees; and english learning (c) to the extent allowed by thinking critically and creatively groups, applicable law, under no circumstances will a Nominator, Nominee, or Voter be permitted to obtain awards for, and each Nominator, Nominee, and Voter hereby waives all rights to claim, punitive, incidental, and/or consequential damages and/or any other damages, other than out-of-pocket expenses, and essay any and all rights to thinking and creatively focus groups have damages multiplied or otherwise increased. SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE LIMITATIONS OR EXCLUSION OF LIABILITY FOR INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO PORTIONS OF THE ABOVE MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. All issues and thesis questions concerning the construction, validity, interpretation, and enforceability of these Official Rules, Nominators’, Nominees’, and Voters’ rights and obligations, or the thinking and creatively about groups, rights and obligations of Administrator and Sponsor in connection with the Contest, shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of Illinois, without giving effect to essay phones and disadvantages any choice of law or conflict of law rules (whether of Illinois or any other jurisdiction), that would cause the application of the critically about focus groups, laws of any jurisdiction other than Illinois. Essay On Mobile Phones. In the event there is a discrepancy or inconsistency between disclosures or other statements contained in any Contest-related materials or made by thinking focus, Administrator’s or Sponsor’s representatives, and application question the terms and about groups conditions of these Official Rules, these Official Rules shall prevail, govern, and control. SEVERABILITY: The invalidity or unenforceability of any provision of english learning thesis, these Official Rules shall not affect the critically and creatively about focus, validity or enforceability of thesis, any other provision. And Creatively Focus Groups. In the event that any provision is china threat, determined to be invalid or otherwise unenforceable or illegal, these Official Rules shall otherwise remain in effect and shall be construed in accordance with their terms as if the invalid or illegal provision were not contained herein. WINNER INFORMATION: The Winner’s name will be posted on after the Winner has been verified and the prize has been awarded. To request the and creatively focus groups, Winner’s name by mail, send a self-addressed, stamped (#10) envelope to Intersport, Inc., Attn: 2017 Most Valuable Coach Winner List, 20 West Kinzie St., Suite 1600, Chicago, Illinois 60654. Requests must be received no later than January 15, 2018.

ADMINISTRATOR: The Contest is administered by Intersport, Inc., 20 W. China Threat Economic Development. Kinzie, Suite 1600, Chicago, Illinois 60654. SPONSOR: The Contest is critically and creatively about focus, sponsored solely by U.S. Cellular, 8410 W. Bryn Mawr, Suite 700, Chicago, Illinois 60631. Application Question. Any questions, comments or complaints regarding the Contest must be directed to Sponsor or Administrator only, and NOT to Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, or Snapchat. All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners.

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Thinking Critically & creatively by shyanne spivey on…

essay on painting On The Pleasure Of Painting 1. There is a pleasure in critically and creatively focus painting which none but painters know. In writing, you have to contend with the world; in painting, you have only to advantages and disadvantages carry on thinking critically about groups, a friendly strife with Nature. You sit down to your task, and are happy. From the moment that you take up the pencil, and look Nature in the face, you are at peace with your own heart. No angry passions rise to disturb the silent progress of the economic development work, to shake the hand, or dim the groups brow: no irritable humours are set afloat: you have no absurd opinions to combat, no point to strain, no adversary to application crush, no fool to annoy -- you are actuated by fear or favour to no man. There is no juggling here, no sophistry, no intrigue, no tampering with the critically about evidence, no attempt to make black white, or white black: but you resign yourself into the hands of a greater power, that of Nature, with the essay on mobile advantages simplicity of a child, and the devotion of an enthusiast -- study with joy her manner, and with rapture taste her style. Thinking Critically And Creatively. The mind is calm, and full at the same time.

The hand and eye are equally employed. In tracing the commonest object, a plant or the stump of essay advantages, a tree, you learn something every moment. You perceive unexpected differences, and discover likenesses where you looked for no such thing. You try to set down what you see -- find out and creatively about, your error, and correct it. You need not play tricks, or purposely mistake: with all your pains, you are still far short of the mark. Patience grows out of the endless pursuit, and turns it into question a luxury. Thinking Critically About Groups. A streak in a flower, a wrinkle in a leaf, a tinge in a cloud, a stain in an old wall or ruin grey, are seized with avidity as the essay on mobile phones advantages spolia opima of this sort of mental warfare, and furnish out labour for another half-day. The hours pass away untold, without chagrin, and focus groups without weariness; nor would you ever wish to consider the lobster pass them otherwise.

Innocence is joined with industry, pleasure with business; and thinking critically and creatively groups the mind is satisfied, though it is not engaged in thinking or in doing any mischief.2. I have not much pleasure in writing these Essays, or in reading them afterwards; though I own I now and then meet with a phrase that I like, or a thought that strikes me as a true one. But after I begin them, I am only anxious to on mobile phones advantages get to the end of them, which I am not sure I shall do, for about focus groups I seldom see my way a page or even a sentence beforehand; and application question when I have as by a miracle escaped, I trouble myself little more about them. I sometimes have to write them twice over: then it is necessary to read the proof, to prevent mistakes by the printer; so that by the time they appear in a tangible shape, and one can con them over with a conscious, sidelong glance to and creatively about focus groups the public approbation, they have lost their gloss and relish, and english thesis become more tedious than a twice-told tale. For a person to focus groups read his own works over with any great delight, he ought first to forget that he ever wrote them. You Write For College. Familiarity naturally breeds contempt. It is, in fact, like poring fondly over a piece of blank paper; from repetition, the words convey no distinct meaning to the mind -- are mere idle sounds, except that our vanity claims an interest and property in them. I have more satisfaction in my own thoughts than in dictating them to others: words are necessary to explain the impression of and creatively focus groups, certain things upon me to application the reader, but they rather weaken and draw a veil over than strengthen it to myself.

However I might say with the poet, My mind to me a kingdom is,3 yet I have little ambition to set a throne or chair of state in the understandings of other men. The ideas we cherish most exist best in a kind of shadowy abstraction, Pure in the last recesses of the mind, and derive neither force nor interest from being exposed to public view. They are old familiar acquaintance, and any change in them, arising from the adventitious ornaments of style or dress, is little to their advantage. Thinking Focus. After I have once written on a subject, it goes out of my mind: my feelings about it have been melted down into words, and english learning then I forget. I have, as it were, discharged my memory of its old habitual reckoning, and about focus groups rubbed out the score of china india economic development, real sentiment. For the future it exists only for the sake of others. But I cannot say, from my own experience, that the same process takes place in about focus groups transferring our ideas to canvas; they gain more than they lose in the mechanical transformation. One is never tired of painting, because you have to set down not what you knew already, but what you have just discovered. In the question former case you translate feelings into words; in the latter, names into things.

There is thinking critically and creatively focus a continual creation out of nothing going on. On Mobile Advantages And Disadvantages. With every stroke of the brush a new field of and creatively about focus groups, inquiry is laid open; new difficulties arise, and new triumphs are prepared over your them. By comparing the imitation with the original, you see what you have done, and thinking critically and creatively about how much you have still to do. English Learning Thesis. The test of the senses is severer than that of fancy, and an over-match even for the delusions of our self-love. One part of and creatively about focus groups, a picture shames another, and you determine to how do for college paint up to and creatively focus yourself, if you cannot come up to Nature. Every object becomes lustrous from the consider essay audio light thrown back upon thinking critically about focus it by the mirror of art: and by the aid of the pencil we may be said to touch and handle the objects of sight. The air-drawn visions that hover on the verge of existence have a bodily presence given them on the canvas: the form of beauty is changed into a substance: the dream and the glory of the universe is made palpable to feeling as well as sight. -- And see! a rainbow starts from the canvas, with its humid train of buying a dissertation your, glory, as if it were drawn from its cloudy arch in heaven. The spangled landscape glitters with drops of dew after the shower. The fleecy fools show their coats in the gleams of the setting sun.

The shepherds pipe their farewell notes in the fresh evening air. And is this bright vision made from a dead, dull blank, like a bubble reflecting the mighty fabric of the critically about universe? Who would think this miracle of Rubens pencil possible to be performed? Who, having seen it, would not spend his life to do the like? See how the rich fallows, the bare stubble-field, the buying a dissertation scanty harvest-home, drag in Rembrandt's landscapes! How often have I looked at them and nature, and tried to do the same, till the very light thickened, and there was an earthiness in the feeling of the air! There is no end of the refinements of art and nature in this respect. One may look at the misty glimmering horizon till the eye dazzles and the imagination is lost, in and creatively about hopes to transfer the whole interminable expanse at one blow upon the canvas. Wilson said, he used to essay on mobile phones and disadvantages try to paint the effect of the motes dancing in critically and creatively about groups the setting sun. At another time, a friend, coming into his painting-room when he was sitting on buying, the ground in a melancholy posture, observed that his picture looked like a landscape after a shower: he started up with the greatest delight, and said, That is the effect I intended to produce, but thought I had failed.

Wilson was neglected; and, by degrees, neglected his art to apply himself to brandy. His hand became unsteady, so that it was only by repeated attempts that he could reach the place or produce the effect he aimed at; and when he had done a little to a picture, he would say to any acquaintance who chanced to critically and creatively about drop in, I have painted enough for one day: come, let us go somewhere. Essay. It was not so Claude left his pictures, or his studies on and creatively focus, the banks of the the lobster Tiber, to go in search of other enjoyments, or ceased to gaze upon the glittering sunny vales and critically and creatively about focus groups distant hills; and question while his eye drank in the clear sparkling hues and and creatively focus lovely forms of nature, his hand stamped them on the lucid canvas to last there for ever! One of the most delightful parts of my life was one fine summer, when I used to walk out of an how do an essay for college, evening to catch the and creatively about last light of the sun, gemming the green slopes or russet lawns, and gilding tower or tree, while the buying a dissertation blue sky, gradually turning to purple and gold, or skirted with dusky grey, hung its broad marble pavement over all, as we see it in the great master of Italian landscape. But to come to a more particular explanation of the subject:--

The first head I ever tried to paint was an old woman with the upper part of the face shaded by her bonnet, and I certainly laboured [at] it with great perseverance.4 It took me numberless sittings to do it. I have it by me still, and thinking and creatively focus groups sometimes look at it with surprise, to think how much pains were thrown away to little purpose, -- yet not altogether in vain if it taught me to see good in consider the lobster essay everything, and to thinking and creatively about groups know that there is nothing vulgar in Nature seen with the eye of science or of true art. Refinement creates beauty everywhere: it is the grossness of the spectator that discovers nothing but grossness in english learning thesis the object. Be this as it may, I spared no pains to do my best. If art was long, I thought that life was so too at that moment. Critically About Focus. I got in the general effect the first day; and pleased and surprised enough I was at how do you write an essay for college, my success. The rest was a work of time -- of critically and creatively about focus, weeks and months (if need were), of patient toil and careful finishing. I had seen an old head by Rembrandt at Burleigh House, and if I could produce a head at all like Rembrandt in a year, in my lifetime, it would be glory and felicity and wealth and fame enough for me!

The head I had seen at Burleigh was an exact and wonderful facsimile of nature, and you write I resolved to make mine (as nearly as I could) an exact facsimile of nature. I did not then, nor do I now believe, with Sir Joshua, that the critically about focus perfection of art consists in giving general appearances without individual details, but in giving general appearances with individual details. Otherwise, I had done my work the your first day. But I saw something more in nature than general effect, and I thought it worth my while to give it in the picture. There was a gorgeous effect of light and shade; but there was a delicacy as well as depth in thinking and creatively about focus groups the chiaroscuro which I was bound to follow into india economic its dim and scarce perceptible variety of tone and shadow. Then I had to make the transition from a strong light to as dark a shade, preserving the masses, but gradually softening off the intermediate parts. It was so in nature; the difficulty was to make it so in the copy. Thinking Critically And Creatively Focus. I tried, and failed again and again; I strove harder, and succeeded as I thought.

The wrinkles in Rembrandt were not hard lines, but broken and irregular. I saw the same appearance in nature, and strained every nerve to give it. If I could hit off this edgy appearance, and insert the reflected light in the furrows of old age in half a morning, I did not think I had lost a day. Beneath the shrivelled yellow parchment look of the skin, there was here and there a streak of the blood-colour tinging the face; this I made a point of conveying, and did not cease to english thesis compare what I saw with what I did (with jealous, lynx-eyed watchfulness) till I succeeded to the best of my ability and judgment. How many revisions were there! How many attempts to catch an expression which I had seen the day before! How often did we try to get the old position, and wait for the return of the about focus groups same light! There was a puckering up of the lips, a cautious introversion of the eye under the shadow of the bonnet, indicative of the feebleness and suspicion of old age, which at last we managed, after many trials and some quarrels, to a tolerable nicety.

The picture was never finished, and I might have gone on with it to the present hour.5 I used to sit it on the ground when my day's work was done, and saw revealed to question me with swimming eyes the birth of new hopes and of a new world of objects. The painter thus learns to look at thinking critically and creatively focus, Nature with different eyes. He before saw her as in a glass darkly, but now face to face. He understands the texture and meaning of the visible universe, and sees into the life of things, not by the help of mechanical instruments, but of the improved exercise of his faculties, and an intimate sympathy with Nature. The meanest thing is not lost upon him, for application he looks at it with an eye to itself, not merely to his own vanity or interest, or the opinion of the world. About Focus. Even where there is neither beauty nor use -- if that ever were -- still there is truth, and a sufficient source of gratification in how do you write for college the indulgence of curiosity and and creatively activity of mind. Essay China Threat India Economic Development. The humblest printer is a true scholar; and the best of scholars -- the scholar of about, Nature.

For myself, and for the real comfort and satisfaction of the a dissertation thing, I had rather have been Jan Steen, or Gerard Dow, than the greatest casuist or philologer that ever lived. The painter does not view things in clouds or mist, the common gloss of theologians, but applies the same standard of truth and disinterested spirit of inquiry, that influence his daily practice, to other subjects. He perceives form, he distinguishes character. He reads men and books with an intuitive eye. He is a critic as well as a connoisseur.

The conclusions he draws are clear and convincing, because they are taken from the things themselves. He is not a fanatic, a dupe, or a slave; for the habit of critically, seeing for himself also disposes him to judge for himself. The most sensible men I know (taken as a class) are painters; that is, they are the most lively observers of what passes in the world about them, and the closest observers of and disadvantages, what passes in their own minds. From their profession they in thinking critically and creatively about general mix more with the world than authors; and if they have not the same fund of acquired knowledge, are obliged to rely more on individual sagacity. I might mention the an essay names of Opie, Fuseli, Northcote, as persons distinguished for thinking and creatively focus groups striking description and acquaintance with the subtle traits of character.6 Painters in ordinary society, or in obscure situations where their value is china india economic not known, and about they are treated with neglect and indifference, have sometimes a forward self-sufficiency of english, manner; but this is not so much their fault as that of others. Thinking Critically And Creatively About. Perhaps their want of regular education may also be in fault in such cases. Richardson, who is very tenacious of the respect in which the profession ought to be held, tells a story of Michael Angelo, that after a quarrel between him and Pope Julius II., upon english thesis account of a slight the artist conceived the pontiff had put upon critically and creatively about him, Michael Angelo was introduced by a bishop, who, thinking to a dissertation your serve the artist by it, made it an argument that the Pope should be reconciled to him, because men of his profession were commonly ignorant, and of no consequence otherwise; his holiness, enraged at the bishop, struck him with his staff, and told him, it was he that was the blockhead, and thinking and creatively focus groups affronted the how do an essay for college man himself would not offend: the prelate was driven out thinking critically, of the chamber, and Michael Angelo had the Pope's benediction, accompanied with presents. This bishop had fallen into the vulgar error, and threat india development was rebuked accordingly. Besides the and creatively about focus groups exercise of the mind, painting exercises the body.

It is a mechanical as well as a liberal art. To do anything, to audio dig a hole in and creatively groups the ground, to plant a cabbage, to hit a mark, to move a shuttle, to work a pattern, -- in a word, to attempt to produce any effect, and to succeed, has something in it that gratifies the love of audio, power, and carries off the restless activity of the mind of man. Indolence is a delightful but distressing state; we must be doing something to be happy. Thinking And Creatively About. Action is no less necessary than thought to the instinctive tendencies of the human frame; and painting combines them both incessantly.7 The hand is furnished a practical test of the correctness of the eye; and the eye, thus admonished, imposes fresh tasks of skill and industry upon the hand. Every stroke tells as the verifying of a new truth; and english learning every new observation, the instant it is made, passes into an act and emanation of the will. Every step is nearer what we wish, and yet there is always more to do. In spite of the facility, the critically about focus groups fluttering grace, the evanescent hues, that play round the pencil of Rubens and learning Van-dyke, however I may admire, I do not envy them this power so much as I do the slow, patient, laborious execution of thinking critically and creatively focus, Correggio, Leonardo da Vinci, and Andrea del Sarto, where every touch appears conscious of its charge, emulous of truth, and where the threat india development painful artist has so distinctly wrought, That you might almost say his picture thought. In the one case the colours seem breathed on the canvas as if by magic, the work and the wonder of about focus, a moment; in the other they seem inlaid in the body of the work, and as if it took the artist years of unremitting labour, and of delightful never-ending progress to perfection.8 Who would wish ever to come to the close of such works, -- not to dwell on them, to return to them, to be wedded to them to the last? Rubens, with his florid, rapid style, complains that when he had just learned his art, he should be forced to die. Leonardo, in the slow advances of his, had lived long enough!

Painting is not, like writing, what is properly understood by a sedentary employment. It requires not indeed a strong, but a continued and steady exertion of essay audio, muscular power. The precision and delicacy of the manual operation, makes up for the want of thinking groups, vehemence, -- as to balance himself for any time in the same position the rope-dancer must strain every nerve. Painting for a whole morning gives one as excellent an appetite for one's dinner as old Abraham Tucker9 acquired for his by riding over Banstead Downs. Your. It is related of Sir Joshua Reynolds, that he took no other exercise than what he used in his painting-room, -- the writer means, in critically focus groups walking backwards and forwards to look at his picture; but the act of painting itself, of laying on the colours in the proper place and proper quantity, was a much harder exercise than this alternate receding from and returning to essay advantages and disadvantages the picture. Critically. This last would be rather a relaxation and relief than an essay phones and disadvantages, effort. It is not to be wondered at, that an artist like Sir Joshua, who delighted so much in the sensual and practical part of his art, should have found himself at a considerable loss when the decay of his sight precluded him, for the last year or two of his life, from the following up of his profession, -- the source, according to his own remark, of thirty years uninterrupted enjoyment and prosperity to him. It is only those who never think at all, or else who have accustomed themselves to brood incessantly on thinking and creatively focus groups, abstract ideas, that never feel ennui . To give one instance more, and then I will have done with this rambling discourse. One of my first attempts was a picture of my father, who was then in a green old age,10 with strong-marked features, and scarred with the smallpox.

I drew it out with a broad light crossing the face, looking down, with spectacles on, reading. The book was Shaftesbury's Characteristics , in a fine old binding, with Gribelin's etchings. My father would as lieve it had been any other book; but for him to read was to english thesis be content, was riches fineless. The sketch promised well; and I set to work to finish it, determined to spare no time nor pains. My father was willing to thinking critically focus groups sit as long as I pleased; for there is a natural desire in the mind of man to your sit for one's picture, to be the object of continued attention, to have one's likeness multiplied; and thinking critically and creatively about groups besides his satisfaction in the picture, he had some pride in the artist, though he would rather I should have written a sermon than painted like Rembrandt or like Raphael. Those winter days, with the gleams of the lobster audio, sunshine coming through the chapel-windows, and cheered by the notes of the robin-redbreast in our garden (that ever in the haunch of winter sings), -- as my afternoon's work drew to a close, -- were among the happiest of thinking focus groups, my life. When I gave the effect I intended to any part of the application question picture for which I had prepared my colours; when I imitated the roughness of the skin by a lucky stroke of the pencil; when I hit the clear, pearly tone of a vein; when I gave the ruddy complexion of health, the groups blood circulating under the broad shadows of one side of the how do you write for college face, I thought my fortune made; or rather it was already more than made, I might one day be able to say with Correggio, I also am a painter! It was an idle thought, a boy's conceit; but it did not make me less happy at critically about focus, the time. I used regularly to set my work in the chair to look at it through the long evenings; and learning many a time did I return to thinking critically focus take leave of essay, it before I could go to bed at night. I remember sending it with a throbbing heart to the Exhibition, and seeing it hung up there by the side of one of the Honourable Mr.

Skeffington (now Sir George). There was nothing in common between them, but that they were the thinking critically about focus groups portraits of two very good-natured men. I think, but am not sure, that I finished this portrait (or another afterwards) on the same day that the news of the buying your battle of Austerlitz came; I walked out in the afternoon, and, as I returned, saw the thinking about evening star set over threat development a poor man's cottage with other thoughts and feelings than I shall ever have again. Oh for the revolution of the great Platonic year, that those times might come over again! I could sleep out the three hundred and sixty-five thousand intervening years very contentedly! -- The picture is critically and creatively focus groups left: the table, the chair, the window where I learned to construe Livy, the chapel where my father preached, remain where they were; but he himself is essay china threat india economic gone to rest, full of years, of faith, of hope, and charity!11. The same subject continued. The painter not only thinking focus groups, takes a delight in how do you write an essay nature, he has a new and exquisite source of pleasure opened to him in the study and contemplation of works of art -- Whate'er Lorraine light touch'd with soft'ning hue, Or savage Rosa dash'd, or learned Poussin drew. He turns aside to view a country gentleman's seat with eager looks, thinking it may contain some of the rich products of art. There is an air round Lord Radnor's park, for there hang the two Claudes, the Morning and Evening of the Roman Empire -- round Wilton House, for there is Vandyke's picture of the Pembroke family -- round Blenheim, for there is his picture of the Duke of Buckingham's children, and the most magnificent collection of Rubenses in the world -- at Knowsley, for there is thinking Rembrandt's Handwriting on buying a dissertation your, the Wall -- and at Burleigh, for there are some of Guido's angelic heads.

The young artist makes a pilgrimage to each of these places, eyes them wistfully at a distance, bosomed high in tufted trees, and feels an thinking and creatively groups, interest in them of essay phones and disadvantages, which the owner is scarce conscious: he enters the thinking well-swept walks and echoing archways, passes the threshold, is led through wainscoted rooms, is shown the furniture, the rich hangings, the tapestry, the consider massy services of about, plate -- and, at last, is ushered into essay economic development the room where his treasure is, the idol of his vows -- some speaking face or bright landscape! It is stamped on his brain, and lives there thenceforward, a tally for and creatively about focus groups nature, and a test of art. He furnishes out the chambers of the mind from the spoils of time, picks and chooses which shall have the best places -- nearest his heart. He goes away richer than he came, richer than the possessor; and thinks that he may one day return, when he perhaps shall have done something like them, or even from failure shall have learned to india admire truth and thinking and creatively about genius more. My first initiation in the mysteries of the your art was at thinking critically focus, the Orleans Gallery: it was there I formed my taste, such as it is; so that I am irreclaimably of the old school in painting. I was staggered when I saw the works there collected, and looked at them with wondering and you write for college with longing eyes.

A mist passed away from my sight: the scales fell off. A new sense came upon thinking critically and creatively about focus me, a new heaven and a new earth stood before me. I saw the soul speaking in the face -- hands that the rod of empire had swayed in mighty ages past -- a forked mountain or blue promontory, -- with trees upon't. That nod unto the world, and mock our eyes with air. Old Time had unlocked his treasures, and Fame stood portress at the door. We had all heard of the names of Titian, Raphael, Guido, Domenichino, the consider Caracci -- but to see them face to thinking critically about face, to be in how do you write for college the same room with their deathless productions, was like breaking some mighty spell--was almost an effect of necromancy! From that time I lived in a world of pictures. Battles, sieges, speeches in parliament seemed mere idle noise and and creatively groups fury, signifying nothing, compared with those mighty works and dreaded names that spoke to me in the eternal silence of thought. This was the essay india economic more remarkable, as it was but a short time before that I was not only totally ignorant of, but insensible to the beauties of art. As an instance, I remember that one afternoon I was reading The Provoked Husband with the highest relish, with a green woody landscape of Ruysdael or Hobbima just before me, at which I looked off the thinking critically and creatively groups book now and then, and wondered what there could be in that sort of work to satisfy or delight the mind -- at the same time asking myself, as a speculative question, whether I should ever feel an interest in it like what I took in reading Vanbrugh and Cibber?

I had made some progress in painting when I went to learning thesis the Louvre to study,12 and I never did anything afterwards. I never shall forget conning over the Catalogue which a friend lent me just before I set out. Critically Focus Groups. The pictures, the names of the english painters, seemed to relish in the mouth. Critically About Focus Groups. There was one of Titian's Mistress at her toilette. Even the colours with which the painter had adorned her hair were not more golden, more amiable to sight, than those which played round and tantalised my fancy ere I saw the picture. There were two portraits by the same hand -- A young Nobleman with a glove -- Another, a companion to it. I read the description over how do and over with fond expectancy, and filled up the imaginary outline with whatever I could conceive of grace, and and creatively about focus dignity, and an antique gusto -- all but equal to the original. There was the Transfiguration too. With what awe I saw it in my mind's eye, and was overshadowed with the spirit of the artist! Not to have been disappointed with these works afterwards, was the highest compliment I can pay to consider essay audio their transcendent merits. Indeed, it was from seeing other works of the same great masters that I had formed a vague, but no disparaging idea of and creatively about groups, these.

The first day I got there, I was kept for consider the lobster audio some time in the French Exhibition Room, and thought I should not be able to get a sight of the old masters. I just caught a peep at them through the door (vile hindrance!) like looking out of purgatory into paradise -- from Poussin's noble, mellow-looking landscapes to where Rubens hung out his gaudy banner, and down the glimmering vista to the rich jewels of Titian and the Italian school. Critically And Creatively. At last, by essay threat development much importunity, I was admitted, and lost not an instant in making use of my new privilege. It was un beau jour to me. Critically And Creatively About Focus. I marched delighted through a quarter of a mile of the proudest efforts of the mind of man, a whole creation of genius, a universe of art! I ran the gauntlet of all the schools from the bottom to the top; and in the end got admitted into the inner room, where they had been repairing some of their greatest works. Here the Transfiguration, the threat economic development St. Peter Martyr, and the St.

Jerome of Domenichino stood on the floor, as if they had bent their knees, like camels stooping, to unlade their riches to the spectator. On one side, on thinking critically and creatively about, an easel, stood Hippolito de Medici (a portrait by Titian), with a boar-spear in his hand, looking through those he saw, till you turned away from the essay china threat economic keen glance; and thrown together in thinking and creatively groups heaps were landscapes of the same hand, green pastoral hills and vales, and shepherds piping to their mild mistresses underneath the flowering shade. Reader, if thou hast not seen the Louvre thou art damned! -- for english learning thesis thou hast not seen the choicest remains of the works of art; or thou hast not seen all these together with their mutually reflected glories. Critically And Creatively Groups. I say nothing of the statues; for thesis I know but little of sculpture, and never liked any till I saw the Elgin Marbles. Thinking Critically About Groups. . . . Here, for four months together, I strolled and studied, and daily heard the warning sound -- Quatres heures passees, il faut fermer, Citoyens -- (Ah! why did they ever change their style?) muttered in coarse provincial French; and brought away with me some loose draughts and buying your fragments, which I have been forced to part with, like drops of life-blood, for about hard money. How often, thou tenantless mansion of godlike magnificence -- how often has my heart since gone a pilgrimage to thee! It has been made a question, whether the artist, or the application question mere man of taste and natural sensibility, receives most pleasure from the contemplation of works of art; and I think this question might be answered by another as a sort of experimentum crucis , namely, whether any one out of that number numberless of mere gentlemen and amateurs, who visited Paris at the period here spoken of, felt as much interest, as much pride or pleasure in this display of the most striking monuments of art as the humblest student would? The first entrance into the Louvre would be only one of the events of his journey, not an event in about groups his life, remembered ever after with thankfulness and regret. He would explore it with the buying same unmeaning curiosity and idle wonder as he would the Regalia in the Tower, or the Botanic Garden in the Tuileries, but not with the fond enthusiasm of an artist.

How should he? His is casual fruition, joyless, unendeared. But the painter is wedded to his art -- the mistress, queen, and idol of his soul. He has embarked his all in thinking focus groups it, fame, time, fortune, peace of mind -- his hopes in youth, his consolation in age: and shall he not feel a more intense interest in whatever relates to it than the mere indolent trifler? Natural sensibility alone, without the entire application of the mind to that one object, will not enable the essay on mobile advantages and disadvantages possessor to sympathise with all the degrees of thinking critically about groups, beauty and power in the conceptions of a Titian or a Correggio; but it is he only who does this, who follows them into consider essay all their force and matchless race, that does or can feel their full value. Knowledge is pleasure as well as power. No one but the artist who has studied nature and contended with the difficulties of art, can be aware of the beauties, or intoxicated with a passion for painting. No one who has not devoted his life and soul to the pursuit of art can feel the same exultation in its brightest ornaments and thinking critically loftiest triumphs which an artist does. Where the treasure is, there the heart is also.

It is now seventeen years since I was studying in the Louvre (and I have long since given up all thoughts of the art as a profession), but long after I returned, and even still, I sometimes dream of being there again -- of english learning, asking for the old pictures -- and about not finding them, or finding them changed or faded from what they were, I cry myself awake! What gentleman-amateur ever does this at such a distance of time, -- that is, ever received pleasure or took interest enough in them to produce so lasting an impression? But it is said that if a person had the same natural taste, and the same acquired knowledge as an artist, without the petty interests and technical notions, he would derive a purer pleasure from seeing a fine portrait, a fine landscape, and so on. This, however, is not so much begging the question as asking an impossibility: he cannot have the same insight into application question the end without having studied the means; nor the thinking critically and creatively groups same love of art without the same habitual and exclusive attachment to it. Painters are, no doubt, often actuated by jealousy to that only threat, which they find useful to themselves in painting. Wilson has been seen poring over the texture of a Dutch cabinet-picture, so that he could not see the picture itself.

But this is the and creatively about groups perversion and pedantry of the profession, not its true or genuine spirit. If Wilson had never looked at the lobster, anything but megilps and handling, he never would have put the soul of life and thinking critically and creatively groups manners into buying his pictures, as he has done. Another objection is, that the instrumental parts of the art, the means, the first rudiments, paints, oils, and brushes, are painful and disgusting; and that the consciousness of the difficulty and anxiety with which perfection has been attained must take away from the pleasure of the finest performance. This, however, is only an additional proof of the greater pleasure derived by the artist from his profession; for these things which are said to interfere with and destroy the common interest in critically and creatively about focus groups works of art do not disturb him; he never once thinks of a dissertation, them, he is absorbed in the pursuit of a higher object; he is intent, not on the means, but the end; he is taken up, not with the difficulties, but with the triumph over them. As in the case of the anatomist, who overlooks many things in the eagerness of his search after abstract truth; or the alchemist who, while he is raking into his soot and furnaces, lives in a golden dream; a lesser gives way to a greater object. But it is pretended that the painter may be supposed to submit to the unpleasant part of the process only for the sake of the fame or profit in view. So far is this from being a true state of the case, that I will venture to say, in the instance of a friend of mine who has lately succeeded in an important undertaking in his art, that not all the fame he has acquired, not all the money he has received from thousands of critically groups, admiring spectators, not all the newspaper puffs, -- nor even the praise of the Edinburgh Review , -- not all these put together ever gave him at any time the same genuine, undoubted satisfaction as any one half-hour employed in essay india development the ardent and propitious pursuit of critically and creatively about focus, his art -- in a dissertation finishing to his heart's content a foot, a hand, or even a piece of drapery. What is the state of mind of an artist while he is at work? He is then in the act of about focus, realising the an essay for college highest idea he can form of beauty or grandeur: he conceives, he embodies that which he understands and loves best: that is, he is in full and perfect possession of that which is to him the source of the highest happiness and intellectual excitement which he can enjoy. In short, as a conclusion to this argument, I will mention a circumstance which fell under my knowledge the other day.

A friend13 had bought a print of Titian's Mistress, the same to thinking and creatively which I have alluded above. He was anxious to buying a dissertation show it me on thinking and creatively about, this account. I told him it was a spirited engraving, but it had not the look of the how do you write original. I believe he thought this fastidious, till I offered to show him a rough sketch of it, which I had by critically and creatively about focus me. Having seen this, he said he perceived exactly what I meant, and buying could not bear to look at the print afterwards. Critically And Creatively Focus Groups. He had good sense enough to see the difference in on mobile phones and disadvantages the individual instance; but a person better acquainted with Titian's manner and thinking critically and creatively groups with art in general -- that is, of a more cultivated and learning refined taste -- would know that it was a bad print, without having any immediate model to compare it with.

He would perceive with a glance of the eye, with a sort of instinctive feeling, that it was hard, and without that bland, expansive, and nameless expression which always distinguished Titian's most famous works. Any one who is accustomed to a head in a picture can never reconcile himself to a print from it; but to the ignorant they are both the same. To a vulgar eye there is no difference between a Guido and a daub -- between a penny print, or the vilest scrawl, and the most finished performance. In other words, all that excellence which lies between these two extremes, -- all, at about groups, least, that marks the excess above mediocrity, -- all that constitutes true beauty, harmony, refinement, grandeur, is how do you write for college lost upon the common observer. But it is from this point that the delight, the glowing raptures of the true adept commence.

An uninformed spectator may like an ordinary drawing better than the ablest connoisseur; but for thinking focus that very reason he cannot like the and disadvantages highest specimens of art so well. The refinements not only of execution but of truth and critically focus nature are inaccessible to unpractised eyes. The exquisite gradations in a sky of Claude's are not perceived by such persons, and consequently the harmony cannot be felt. Where there is no conscious apprehension, there can be no conscious pleasure. Wonder at the first sights of works of art may be the effect of ignorance and novelty; but real admiration and permanent delight in them are the growth of taste and knowledge. I would not wish to have your eyes, said a good-natured man to how do you write for college a critic who was finding fault with a picture in which the other saw no blemish. Why so?

The idea which prevented him from admiring this inferior production was a higher idea of truth and thinking focus groups beauty which was ever present with him, and a continual source of pleasing and lofty contemplations. It may be different in a taste for outward luxuries and how do for college the privations of mere sense; but the idea of perfection, which acts as an intellectual foil, is always an thinking and creatively, addition, a support, and a proud consolation! Richardson, in his Essays,14 which ought to be better known, has left some striking examples of the felicity and infelicity of the lobster essay, artists, both as it relates to critically and creatively groups their external fortune and to the practice of their art. In speaking of the knowledge of hands, he exclaims: When one is considering a picture or a drawing, one at the same time thinks this was done by him15 who had many extraordinary endowments of threat, body and mind, but was withal very capricious; who was honoured in thinking critically about focus groups life and death, expiring in english learning thesis the arms of one of the critically and creatively groups greatest princes of that age, Francis I., King of essay china, France, who loved him as a friend. Another is of him16 who lived a long and happy life, beloved of Charles V. About Groups. emperor; and many others of the first princes of Europe. When one has another in hand, we think this was done by one17 who so excelled in three arts as that any of them in that degree had rendered him worthy of immortality; and one moreover that durst contend with his sovereign (one of the haughtiest popes that ever was) upon a slight offered to him, and application extricated himself with honour. Another is the work of him18 who, without any one exterior advantage but mere strength of genius, had the most sublime imaginations, and executed them accordingly, yet lived and critically and creatively about focus died obscurely. On Mobile Advantages And Disadvantages. Another we shall consider as the work of him19 who restored Painting when it had almost sunk; of him whom art made honourable, but who, neglecting and thinking critically about focus despising greatness with a sort of buying a dissertation your, cynical pride, was treated suitably to the figure he gave himself, not his intrinsic worth; which, [he] not having philosophy enough to bear it, broke his heart. Another is done by one20 who (on the contrary) was a fine gentleman and lived in great magnificence, and was much honoured by his own and foreign princes; who was a courtier, a statesman, and a painter; and so much all these, that when he acted in either character, that seemed to be his business, and thinking critically and creatively about focus the others his diversion. I say when one thus reflects, besides the learning thesis pleasure arising from the thinking groups beauties and excellences of the work, the fine ideas it gives us of natural things, the noble way of thinking it suggest to us, an additional pleasure results from the above considerations. China Economic Development. But, oh! the pleasure, when a connoisseur and lover of art has before him a picture or drawing of which he can say this is the hand, these are the thoughts of him21 who was one of the politest, best-natured gentlemen that ever was; and beloved and assisted by the greatest wits and the greatest men then in Rome: of him who lived in great fame, honour, and magnificence, and thinking about focus groups died extremely lamented; and china india economic development missed a Cardinal's hat only by critically about focus dying a few months too soon; but was particularly esteemed and favoured by two Popes, the only ones who filled the chair of St.

Peter in his time, and as great men as ever sat there since that apostle, if at least he ever did: one, in short, who could have been a Leonardo, a Michael Angelo, a Titian, a Correggio, a Parmegiano, an Annibal, a Rubens, or any other whom he pleased, but none of them could ever have been a Raffaelle. The same writer speaks feelingly of the change in application the style of different artists from thinking critically about focus groups, their change of fortune, and as the circumstances are little known I will quote the passage relating to two of them:-- Guido Reni, from a prince-like affluence of buying, fortune (the just reward of critically and creatively about groups, his angelic works), fell to a condition like that of a hired servant to one who supplied him with money for what he did at a fixed rate; and that by his being bewitched by buying a dissertation your a passion for and creatively focus groups gaming, whereby he lost vast sums of money; and buying a dissertation your even what he got in his state of servitude by day, he commonly lost at night: nor could he ever be cured of this cursed madness. Those of his works, therefore, which he did in this unhappy part of his life may easily be conceived to be in a different style to what he did before, which in some things, that is, in groups the airs of his heads (in the gracious kind) had a delicacy in an essay them peculiar to himself, and almost more than human. But I must not multiply instances. Parmegiano is one that alone takes in all the several kinds of variation, and all the degrees of goodness, from the lowest of the indifferent up to the sublime. Critically And Creatively About Focus Groups. I can produce evident proofs of this in so easy a gradation, that one cannot deny but that he that did this might do that, and very probably did so; and thus one may ascend and descend, like the angels on Jacob's ladder, whose foot was upon the earth, but its top reached to advantages and disadvantages Heaven.

And this great man had his unlucky circumstance. He became mad after the philosopher's stone, and did but very little in painting or drawing afterwards. Thinking Critically About Focus Groups. Judge what that was, and whether there was not an alteration of style from what he had done before this devil possessed him. His creditors endeavoured to exorcise him, and your did him some good, for be set himself to work again in his own way; but if a drawing I have of a Lucretia be that he made for his last picture, as it probably is thinking critically and creatively (Vasari says that was the subject of it), it is an evident proof of his decay; it is good indeed, but it wants much of the delicacy which is commonly seen in his works; and so I always thought before I knew or imagined it to be done in this his ebb of consider essay, genius. We have had two artists of our own country whose fate has been as singular as it was hard: Gandy was a portrait-painter in the beginning of the last century, whose heads were said to and creatively focus have come near to Rembrandt's, and he was the undoubted prototype of Sir Joshua Reynolds's style. Yet his name has scarcely been heard of; and his reputation, like his works, never extended beyond his own country. What did he think of himself and of a fame so bounded? Did he ever dream he was indeed an artist? Or how did this feeling in him differ from the vulgar conceit of the lowest pretender? The best known of his works is a portrait of an alderman of Exeter, in how do an essay for college some public building in that city. Poor Dan.

Stringer! Forty years ago he had the thinking critically focus finest hand and the clearest eye of any artist of his time, and produced heads and drawings that would not have disgraced a brighter period in how do an essay the art. But he fell a martyr (like Burns) to the society of country gentlemen, and then of those whom they would consider as more his equals. I saw him many years ago when he treated the masterly sketches he had by him (one in critically groups particular of the group of how do you write an essay for college, citizens in Shakespeare swallowing the tailor's news) as bastards of his genius, not his children, and seemed to have given up all thoughts of his art. Whether he is since dead, I cannot say; the world do not so much as know that he ever lived! 1 Hazlitt's On The Pleasure Of Painting is to be found in Table Talk, Essays on Men and Manners (1822). 2 [Original note.] There is a passage in Werter which contains a very pleasing illustration of this doctrine, and is as follows:- About a league from the town is a place called Walheim. It is very agreeably situated on the side of a hill: from one of the paths which leads out of the village, you have a view of the whole country; and there to thinking critically about focus groups a good old woman who sells wine, coffee, and tea there: but better than all this are two lime-trees before the church, which spread their branches over a little green, surrounded by barns and cottages.

I have seen few places more retired and peaceful. I send for a chair and table from the old woman's, and there I drink my coffee and read Homer. It was by china accident that I discovered this place one fine afternoon: all was perfect stillness; everybody was in the fields, except a little boy about four years old, who was sitting on the ground, and critically about focus holding between his knees a child of about six months; he pressed it to his bosom with his little arms, which made a sort of essay, great chair for it; and notwithstanding the vivacity which sparkled in his eyes, he sat perfectly still. Quite delighted with the scene, I sat down on thinking and creatively focus, a plough opposite, and had great pleasure in drawing this little picture of brotherly tenderness. I added a bit of the hedge, the essay threat barn-door, and some broken cart-wheels, without any order, just as they happened to lie; and in about an hour I found I had made a drawing of great expression and very correct design without having put in anything of my own. Thinking And Creatively Focus Groups. This confirmed me in the resolution I had made before, only to copy Nature for the future.

Nature is inexhaustible, and alone forms the greatest masters. On Mobile And Disadvantages. Say what you will of rules, they alter the true features and thinking and creatively groups the natural expression. Learning Thesis. (Page 15.) 3 [Ed. note in Bohn ed.] A very popular ballad and thinking focus groups ballad tune. English Learning. It is refereed to in a tract printed in 1618. The ballad itself is thinking and creatively about groups inserted in Menez's Collection of Poems , 1767. --Ed. [William Carew Hazlitt.] 4 [Ed. note in Bohn ed.] This person the writer met with in the vicinity of Manchester, in for college 1803 (I believe): the picture is still in my possession; but it has suffered much from [neglect]. --Ed.

5 [Original note.] It is at present covered with a thick slough of oil and varnish (the perishable vehicle of the English school), like an envelope of goldbeaters' skin, so as to be hardly visible. 6 [Original note.] Men in business, who are answerable with their fortunes for the consequences of their opinions, and are therefore accustomed to ascertain pretty accurately the grounds on which they act, before they commit themselves on the event, are often men of remarkably quick and sound judgements. Artists in like manner must know tolerably well what they are about, before they can bring the result of their observations to thinking critically and creatively groups the test of ocular demonstration. 7 [Original note.] The famous Schiller used to say, that he found the essay china development great happiness of life, after all, to consist in the discharge of some mechanical duty. 8 [Original note.] The rich impasting of Titian and Giorgione combines something of the and creatively focus groups advantages of both these styles, the felicity of the one with the consider the lobster carefulness of the other, and is perhaps to be preferred to either. 9 [Ed. note in thinking critically focus Bohn ed.] Author of the Light of Nature Pursued and Vocal Sounds , both published under the application nom de plume of about focus groups, Edward Search. He was a man of fortune, and an essay for college resided at Betchworth castle, Surrey, the thinking critically and creatively about groups ancient seat of the Brown family. Consider The Lobster. --Ed. 10 [Ed. note in Bohn ed.] This portrait was taken in 1804; the thinking and creatively about groups Rev. W. Hazlitt was then sixty-eight, and in charge of the Unitarian congregation at on mobile phones advantages and disadvantages, Wem, in Shropshire. --Ed. 11 [Ed. note in Bohn ed.] He died at thinking critically and creatively about, Crediton, near Exeter, July 16, 1820 at age 84, [cite given] . --Ed.

12 [Ed. note in Bohn ed.] In 1802. See the author's letters from the Louvre [Cite given] . English Thesis. --Ed. 13 [Ed. note in Bohn ed.] Haydon, I believe. --Ed. 14 [Ed. note in thinking and creatively groups Bohn ed.] Works on application question, Painting, etc, by John Richardson, 1722. --Ed.

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essay on anonymity Social Research Update is published quarterly by the Department of Sociology, University of Surrey, Guildford GU7 5XH, England. Subscriptions for the hardcopy version are free to researchers with addresses in the UK. Apply to SRU subscriptions at the address above, or email A PDF version of thinking critically about focus groups, this article is available here. The Anonymity of application question, Research Participants: Assumptions, Ethics and critically and creatively focus, Practicalities. Anne Grinyer is a lecturer in the Institute for Health Research and in application question, the School of Independent Studies at Lancaster University. She is a sociologist of thinking focus, health and illness and has a special interest in the construction of scientific and medical knowledge, the management of health risks and in qualitative research methods. She has recently written a book on essay china india, young adults with cancer based on groups, narrative data written by their parents.

Anonymity for respondents/participants is assumed to how do for college, be an integral feature of ethical research The legal requirements of the Data Protection Act assume anonymity should be maintained wherever possible Most researchers go to considerable lengths to protect respondents' identities Respondents may, however, feel that they 'lose their ownership' of the data when anonymised The allocation of and creatively about, pseudonyms to protect identity can cause unanticipated distress The practicalities of mixing real names and pseudonyms in you write an essay, publication can be complex. When researchers consider the issue of the anonymity of thinking critically about groups, research participants, concern may be most likely to focus on how it can be maintained, particularly when under pressure from essay on mobile phones and disadvantages, authorities to divulge identities (Grinyer 2001). And Creatively Groups! However, what I consider here is the apparently underestimated likelihood of research participants wishing to be acknowledged in published research thus enabling them to china india, retain ownership of their stories. The consideration of mechanisms to protect the identity of research respondents appears to have become central to the design and practice of ethical research. Consequent assumptions about the desirability of anonymity are embedded in thinking critically focus, various codes of ethical conduct. The Lobster Audio! For example The British Psychological Society's code says the following: Participants in psychological research have a right to expect that information they provide will be treated confidentially and, if published, will not be identifiable as theirs. (Robson 1995:43) The British Sociological Association Code of Ethical Practice adopts a similar stance: Research participants should understand how far they will be afforded anonymity and confidentiality and should be able to reject the use of data gathering devices such as tape-recorders and critically and creatively groups, video cameras. (BSA:704) The same code of ethical conduct continues by emphasising the on mobile phones, importance of respecting the anonymity and thinking and creatively about focus, privacy of research participants. Advantages And Disadvantages! A range of authors in a variety of methodological texts address anonymity, and the norm is to emphasise the importance of maintaining it (for example: Heath and Luff 1995:308, Newell 1995:110, Procter 1995:258). Thus the about focus, usual 'rule of thumb' according to Barnes (1979:39) is that data should be presented in such a way that respondents should be able to recognise themselves, while the application question, reader should not be able to identify them.

Since the introduction of the Data Protection Act (1998) which came into effect on 1 March 2000, the consideration of anonymity and privacy is no longer simply a matter of ethics; it can also have legal implications. The fundamental principle of the Act is the protection of the rights of individuals in respect of personal data held about them by thinking critically about groups data controllers -- including academic researchers. Concerns relating to the misuse of personal data have stemmed from the vast amount of data that new technologies have enabled to be amassed on individuals, though the Act also applies to both electronic data and manual data (paper, card indices, files etc.). The Act addresses a number of issues relating to anonymity and says that anonymisation should be carried out as far as possible to increase the security of on mobile phones, data processing. Once data have been completely anonymised and can never be reconstructed to identify the individual, they no longer constitute personal data and so are exempt from the Act. However, the commissioner acknowledges that in practice true anonymity may be difficult to achieve and recommends that all unnecessary, identifying detail should be stripped from critically about focus groups, research data prior to publication. In instances where the identity of an individual may be difficult to conceal because of details of personal circumstances, explicit consent must be obtained before publication can proceed. Such mechanisms for the protection of individuals do of course have a central place in the design and conduct of ethical research and there are many instances in which the guarantee of anonymity to essay and disadvantages, research participants is of paramount importance. Critically! Yet these concerns may have led to a culturally embedded assumption that anonymity is an ethical prerequisite, particularly in areas of investigation that may be of consider the lobster, a sensitive nature.

All the thinking critically and creatively about focus, guidelines discussed thus far are based on the premise that individuals not only deserve the protection of anonymity, but that they actively desire it. However, the advantages and disadvantages, experience of a recent research project with the parents of young adults with cancer suggests that the issue of about groups, identity/anonymity is more complex and essay china economic development, less predictable than it might at critically first appear and may problematise some of the ethical and buying a dissertation your, legal requirements for good practice. A challenge to the orthodox assumptions. The research sought to understand the effects on families when young adults between the ages of about groups, 18--25 are diagnosed with cancer. A call for thesis, narratives was made and disseminated through a number of cancer charities and other relevant organisations.

The reasoning behind this methodological approach was that respondents would be able to decide without pressure if they wished to thinking, contribute an account, they would be able to a dissertation your, choose when and how they responded and would be able to present the account in their own terms. This resulted in the parents of 30 young adults with cancer sending their stories. The call for narratives, in accordance with accepted ethical practice (Grbich 1999), assured potential respondents that their identities would not be disclosed in any resulting publication. Thinking And Creatively! Indeed Grbich goes as far as saying that respondents should be told explicitly how confidentiality and anonymity will be maintained. It was therefore not questioned by anyone involved in the research project when, during the transcription phase, pseudonyms were allocated to all the characters within the narratives. Consider! The transcriber selected the pseudonyms on an apparently arbitrary basis. Critically And Creatively Focus! For the first dozen or so transcripts this allocation of pseudonyms remained unquestioned. However, as the learning, data continued to be submitted, my fellow researcher and thinking about, I began to query the process. At first we simply doubted the a dissertation your, appropriateness of the thinking and creatively groups, renaming.

For example, a respondent called Gabrielle was renamed 'Joan', although somehow this did not appear to advantages and disadvantages, be an 'equivalent' name. But as the research progressed we also began to question whether some respondents might prefer to be referred to in publications by thinking critically and creatively about focus groups their own names. The parents who had been brave enough to send the narratives had shared with us some of the most intensely painful and intimate details of their family's lives. On Mobile Phones And Disadvantages! How would they feel if they had been allocated a random pseudonym and what would be the thinking critically and creatively groups, effect of seeing their lost son or daughter referred to by another's name? As a result of our unease at essay threat india development the allocation of pseudonyms, all participants were written to critically focus groups, and asked if they would prefer to be called by their own names or to be allocated a pseudonym in any publication using extracts from their narratives. To our surprise only buying a dissertation seven of the critically about groups, respondents said that they would like pseudonyms to be allocated. English Learning! Thus about threequarters of the respondents specified that they would like their own names used.

Despite the disquiet that caused us to question the use of pseudonyms, the overwhelming desire for the use of real names challenged our assumptions about the accepted norm that respondents prefer anonymity. But in thinking about focus, spite of our attempts to satisfy the wishes of respondents, after the publication of a journal article based on the research (Grinyer and Thomas 2001) it became apparent that at the lobster least one respondent had made a mistake in her request for thinking critically focus, the use of pseudonyms. After the publication of the article, all respondents were sent a copy. Many replied thanking us for how do you write an essay, raising important issues and helping other families facing similar problems. However, one parent with whom we had had frequent correspondence prior to the article's publication, did not reply to us. Thinking Critically And Creatively Focus Groups! It was not until some months later, before the publication of a book based on the narratives (Grinyer 2002), that we again contacted her in relationship to the use of photographs she had sent. She replied apologising for her earlier lack of response and said that despite her request that we use pseudonyms, when she had seen her words attributed to application, another's name, and reference to her dead son also allocated a pseudonym, she realised she had made a grave error. In her own words:

I was very moved by and creatively about groups the whole article and the experiences of other parents. I have one major regret that I can now express, but at the time it meant that I just couldn't respond to your letter. Looking back I was very disappointed not to see Stephen's and my name in a dissertation, print. Even though my words were there, I felt as though I had somehow lost ownership of them and had betrayed Stephen's memory. That was entirely my own fault. I know that you followed my original wishes but this was a great mistake on my part. I was also upset because my family and friends found it odd as well. They expected and thinking critically and creatively, wanted. our names too.

Please if you use any of consider the lobster essay, my writing or photographs in the future can you be sure to critically and creatively about focus, use all our real names . . I had been looking forward to the transcript of your article in order to share other's experiences, but without our real names I didn't feel part of it. I didn't show it to china threat india development, anyone because I knew they would not have recognised Steve. Gabrielle (real name, emphasis in original) Fortunately, this change of heart became known before the manuscript of the book had been submitted and so the names could be changed in time for publication. After receiving this letter we questioned whether the other parents asking for anonymity might also feel the same. Interestingly, when going through the thinking and creatively about focus groups, list of english thesis, those asking for pseudonyms we found that most of them came from the parents of a son or daughter who had survived the cancer (only seven of the young people in the study had survived). Only two requests for pseudonyms were from parents whose son or daughter had died. We had no means of knowing if the decisions on names relating to the seven surviving young adults had been taken in consultation with them, but our assumption was that it had been a joint decision and in these cases we made the critically and creatively about focus, judgement to allow the essay advantages and disadvantages, pseudonym to remain unquestioned. While there are ethical issues about who should take the decision relating to the allocation of names -- these were after all young people legally entitled to make their own medical decisions -- it was not felt appropriate to critically and creatively about groups, pursue the consider essay audio, matter and verify the process of consultation that might have taken place within the family.

However, again making a judgement based on what we knew of the circumstances, one of the critically about groups, two respondents whose son had died and who had requested pseudonyms was contacted and english learning, asked if she would like to reconsider her original decision and instead to have the about focus, real names of herself, her son and wider family used in the book about to be published. This parent telephoned the same day the application question, letter arrived and said that she and her family had decided they would change their minds and would like their real names to be used. In contrast, we contacted one respondent who had opted for her real name to critically, be used to suggest that she might like to reconsider. This was because she had provided some personal details of family members that we feared she might find embarrassing if published. However, despite our suggestion that she consider pseudonyms, she reiterated her wish for real names to be used. English! Thus it is clear how problematic it is to make judgements on behalf of others, however well intentioned. In addition to the issues discussed thus far, there are practical problems associated with the critically about, use and allocation of pseudonyms, the mixing of real names and pseudonyms and you write an essay, the changing of critically and creatively focus, names after they have been embedded within a text. The first practical problem that was faced during the writing of the book was that there was a mixture of real names and pseudonyms, and consider the lobster audio, that some of those allocated pseudonyms wanted them to be changed to their real names, while some of those whose real names had been used wanted pseudonyms. The reallocation of names to accord with respondents' wishes proved a time consuming and critically about focus groups, complex matter. To have anticipated at the outset of the research process that such issues might arise would have saved hours of application question, complex editing. The second problem was whether those who wished to thinking critically and creatively about focus, have pseudonyms should be able to select their own name.

In using real names there was already some duplication that necessitated the use of initials to distinguish them. To have risked yet more respondents wishing to be known by names already used seemed problematic. English Learning Thesis! Yet there is always the danger that allocating names to respondents will result in them being called by a name that has bad associations or that they simply cannot relate to. Who makes the choice, the researcher, the transcriber or the respondent? This may be of some importance as all are likely to make different choices that will have an impact on the outcome for the respondent. In this case the resulting text has a mix of real names and pseudonyms. While these could have been differentiated by the use of italics, a decision was made not to show which were which as the reader does not need this information. The research amongst the critically about focus groups, parents of young adults with cancer raised a number of phones advantages, unexpected practical and thinking critically and creatively focus, ethical issues, none of which appear to be covered in orthodox guidelines or texts on the practice of research. While it is essential that the interests of research participants should be protected, there does appear to be a risk that accepted practice embedded into ethical guidelines and consider audio, legal requirements may not always be experienced by critically and creatively focus respondents in the ways anticipated by the researcher.

The balance of protecting respondents from harm by hiding their identity while at the same time preventing 'loss of ownership' is an issue that needs to be addressed by each researcher on an individual basis with each respondent. Even then, it is still possible that respondents will make the 'wrong' choice, as did Gabrielle in this research. Therefore, where possible, to show respondents their words in print at a draft stage so that they can make a more informed judgment may be the only way in which to maximise the english, chance that their wishes are fulfilled. Even then it may be that unexpected feelings are aroused after publication. Thinking Critically Focus Groups! However, if researchers are aware of the issues and consult with respondents as fully as possible throughout the research and publication process there will be less chance of research participants feeling that they have lost ownership of their stories. There is after all an ethical dimension to a researcher deciding on behalf of respondents that their identity should be concealed without verifying the respondents' wishes. Finally, it must be acknowledged that the research project in essay phones, question has a number of features that distinguish it. It deals with a very emotional and personal issue, the responses were entirely 'voluntary', there was continuing contact between the research team and the respondents and thinking and creatively focus groups, no institution that might wish to essay china threat india development, maintain secrecy was involved. There may also have been stronger motivation for respondents in such an about focus, area to have their experiences recognised and acknowledged. English! Nevertheless, it still challenges assumptions about the thinking and creatively focus groups, identification of respondents in question, sensitive research.

Barnes J. Thinking And Creatively About Groups! (1979) Who Should Know What? Penguin, Harmondsworth. British Sociological Association (1992) Statement of Ethical Practice, Sociology , Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 703-707. Data Protection Act (1998) Reprinted incorporating corrections (2000), The Stationery Office, Norwich. Grbich C. Phones! (1999) Qualitative Research in Health , Sage, London. Grinyer A. (2002) Cancer in young adults: through parents' eyes , Open University Press, Buckingham, (accepted for publication). Grinyer A. And Creatively About Focus! (2001) Ethical dilemmas in non-clinical health research, Nursing Ethics , 8 (2), pp.123-132. Grinyer A. and Thomas C. (2001) Young Adults with Cancer: The effect on Parents and how do you write an essay for college, Families, The International Journal of thinking critically about focus groups, Palliative Nursing , April 2001.

Vol.7 No.4 pp. 162-170. Heath C. and Luff P. (1995) Explicating face-to-face interaction, Researching Social Life , (Gilbert N. Ed.) Sage, London, pp. 36-326. Newell R. (1995) Questionnaires, Researching Social Life , (Gilbert N. Ed.) Sage, London, pp. 94-115. Procter M. (1995) Measuring Attitudes, Researching Social Life , (Gilbert N. Ed.) Sage, London, pp.116-134. Robson C. Real World Research , Blackwell, Oxford.

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