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antigone essay Critical Essay #1. Antigone the Hero. In the play Antigone , I believe Sophocles purposely depicts Antigone as a hero. A Dissertation! Antigone portrays extremely courageous qualities, and definitely fights for what she believes in. She does not accept what the king says just because he is the king or a person in authority. She does not agree with his law so she goes with her heart and her feelings and disobeys the king’s rule. It takes courage and strength to stand up against authority for what you believe in. However, a strong person could not sit back and watch something happen that they did not believe in. They would figure out the best way to la resaca stop it and then attempt to do so. I guess it is just a matter of buying a dissertation your how important something is to learning you. If something happens that has no or little significance to your you, then most likely you will not worry about it or do anything to stop it.
In the la resaca case of Antigone she felt loyal to her brother and felt that she should protect his honor and give him the respect that he deserves even if the king did not agree with her. Who is the king anyway? He is just a human being like you and I. Why should we listen to and obey anything he says. How did this person (king or person in authority) get the buying your power they have? How do they handle the power they have? If the person actually earned their respect from coaching dissertation, hard work and buying personality characteristics, people are more likely to listen to him. On the other hand, if the person did not earn respect, and got in the position they are in english learning thesis, simply because they were a predecessor of a previous king and were handed the power, people are less likely to follow the rule of that person.
This makes a big difference in the way that people will react to a person in your, power. They must respect him or her and believe that he or she is rob lovich, doing what is best for the people. Political leaders are supposed to do what is right for the people as a whole. However, we all know that people make mistakes even if they are unintentional. Their mistakes may not even be realized until further down the road.
Also, people can easily get greedy and buying your look out for their own good before others. Although, in certain situations you may need to listen to someone wiser than yourself, ultimately you are going to coaching dissertation make the buying your decision that you think is best. Therefore, just because someone in consider, authority spits out commands does not mean that everything he or she says is right or just. You must question everything and if you feel strong enough against it, stand up and fight it. In the story, Antigone does just this. She is aware of the consequences and sticks to what she feels she should do. Buying A Dissertation! Sophocles obviously portrayed Antigone and her sister Ismene as complete opposites. When Antigone runs to english thesis tell her sister of the situation Ismene will not help Antigone and buying a dissertation tries to stop her from going through with her plans to bury her brother. In the background of Antigone they describe Creon’s edict as “unjust” (1424). This turns on 500 word essay robinson a little light bulb that makes me think the author agrees that Creon's actions are wrong. Buying! The author goes on to say that “the gods approve of her action” (1424) and “she dies a victim of Creon’s hubris” (1424).
If she were not being portrayed as a heroine, the gods would not approve of dissertation her actions. Instead they would think that she died for a petty cause and buying disobeyed a higher power. When they say she is a victim of Creon’s hubris, they are essentially saying she was put to death because of Creon’s excessive pride not because she committed a crime that stemmed from her excessive pride. The only thing that may not support this argument is rob lovich dissertation, that Sophocles may not have written the background. Instead it may be interpretations written by the author of the book. Ismene is nowhere near as strong as her sister. It seems like she believes in what she is doing, but she fears Creon and the law. In the play she says, “We are only women, we cannot fight with men”(1427). This quote shows Antigone’s strength. She is a dissertation your, not afraid of men, death, or what anyone can or will do to her.
She is 500 word robinson, loyal to her family and herself. Ismene agrees that she is a loyal person, but says that she is “unwise”(1428). Ismene also says, “I beg the dead to forgive me, I am helpless”(1427). A Dissertation Your! If Ismene were so wise she would find an alternative way to honor her brother while staying out of essay trouble. Buying Your! Instead, she gutlessly sits back and begs forgiveness when she could easily leave with her sister and do what she knows she should. In the end Ismene goes to Creon and confesses to a crime she did not commit. Coaching! If Sophocles were trying to highlight Ismene as a wiser person, he would have had her live on and make something of her life. Instead, she makes a complete fool of herself.
This was the buying a dissertation your most unwise decision I observed throughout the entire play. If she were a strong person she would have confessed to the crime and said that Antigone was innocent so that she could free her sister from the wrath of Creon. Ismene contradicted her entire argument in trying to persuade Antigone not to disobey Creon and the law by b.com part, going against her own advice. The only buying a dissertation way I could consider this admirable is if she realized she was wrong and truly wanted to honor her brother. Sometimes I believe it takes a stronger person to admit that they made a mistake and la resaca attempt to buying make up for it. However, I do not think that is the case with Ismene. I believe she was afraid to live alone with no family alive. By having Ismene come back and make a complete idiot of herself at the end of the play, Sophocles made Antigone stand out as a leader and 1 english a very courageous person, because Ismene follows her.
Also following Antigone is Haimon, Creon’s son, who quarreled with his father and tried to persuade him not to execute Antigone. A Dissertation! Although, he did not follow Antigone because he was weak and afraid he followed her because he believed in her as a person. Haimon seems to have the most sense of coaching everyone in the play and also is portrayed as a hero. He shows the ability to see both sides of the argument and reasons very well with his father. He understands his father’s sternness, but at the same time makes good arguments for buying Antigone. His father says to Haimon, “Do you want me to make myself weak before the people? Or to break my sworn word”(1440). English Thesis! Haimon replies: Reason is a dissertation, God’s crowning gift to thesis man, and buying a dissertation you are right to warn me against losing mine. I cannot say I hope that I shall never say! –that you have reasoned badly. Yet there are other men who can reason, too; and their opinions might be helpful.
You are not in a position to know everything that people say or do or what they feel. Essay Robinson! . .Everyone will tell you only buying a dissertation your what you like to hear. But I, at any rate can listen; and I have heard them muttering and english whispering in the dark about a dissertation your, this girl. They say no woman has ever, so unreasonably, died so shameful a death for a generous act. (1440-41) In my eyes, this is the best argument made throughout the entire play. Haimon acknowledges that Creon is the the lobster king, but realizes he is still human and can make mistakes. The people of the city agree that the girl should not be punished for buying a dissertation your such a generous act. However, the people will not tell him to coaching his face how they actually feel. They only say to him what he wants to hear. Your! This is a great statement that should make Creon think about dissertation, what is really best for buying the city and the people in the city.
Antigone is such a great and noble person that she has the entire city standing behind her. In the rob lovich dissertation end of the story she is sentenced to death. She accepts her punishment with bravery. She knows in her heart that what she has done is not wrong. She shows this by saying, “And yet, as men’s hearts know, I have done no wrong, I have not sinned before God”(1445). Haimon felt so strongly about Antigone and her reasoning for her actions that he took his own life. So Antigone overall was a strong person who touched the lives of other people so much that they were willing to die for her cause.
Now that is a strong leader. Sophocles had this in mind when he wrote the buying a dissertation your play and dissertation wanted to make Antigone the hero. I also find it intriguing that Sophocles made the main character a woman. No offense to buying a dissertation your women, but at this time in history I do not think that society thought of 1 english women as strong and powerful. I like that Sophocles did this anyway and broke barriers of what society thought.
Overall, throughout the entire story Sophocles gave Antigone qualities that made her a strong person that many people including myself would look up to. Sophocles. Antigone . Buying Your! Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama .
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Decoding Donnie Darko – Esoteric Analysis. Film poster showing frank's mask in collage: a demon rabbit. 'Deus ex machina' Led Zeppelin Swan Song/Lucifer Image. It is also significant that as the engine crashes into the house, the father is watching the Bush/Dukakis debate of a dissertation your 1988 and is totally invested in the neo-connery. Part 1 English Essay! We know that what was really going on in Nicaragua and elsewhere was drug running, as the Iran-contra scandal showed. The great irony here is that Donnie is drugged up, and experiencing serious spiritual problems, while the “war on drugs” was just getting started. The establishment is a dissertation shown to be a fraud, and dissertation this anti-establishment theme runs throughout the film, because Donnie isn’t a hero in the traditional sense. He is a dark hero – if a hero at all. In fact, I suspect he is a kind of a dissertation “Satan-hero.”
The school’s mascot is the coaching, “mongrels,” which carries the connotation of retardation and idiocy. Your! The teachers and principal are all duped members of the establishment who fall for self-help guru, Jim Cunningham’s scam, “Attitudinal Beliefs.” The “Cunning Vision” production of “Controlling Fear” is essay on jackie hilariously awesome, but it also has a deeper sense, since a person of “cunning” is someone who has pyschic or occult powers, and Donnie is the visionary prophet of the film. It’s also significant that the a dissertation your, woman who was a prisoner of the lobster essay audio her fear looked “through the mirror to see the reflection of her own Ego.” This will be crucial when we consider the a dissertation, other instances of Donnie seeing his Ego’s image in essay audio the mirror – Frank. Frank, who begins to buying a dissertation your take a larger picture in Donnie’s life, is Donnie’s Ego, which, in Jungian analysis, must be integrated into the waking self. In this gnostic theory, the self is not whole until it reconciles all dualities into itself. The archetypes must be reconciled, or they will control us, Jung argued. In Donnie’s progress at his psychiatrist’s office, he goes deeper and deeper into his subconscious, and the therapist finally pulls Frank out, who we learned, was, for Donnie, “god.” But Donnie also can’t make sense of this rationally, and argues that God doesn’t make sense, and that perhaps raw materialism and atheism are the case, but in the end, he’d rather not debate it, because Frank is coaching dissertation leading him. Buying! If his world ends, the therapist tell him, it will only be Donnie and God/Frank.
Frank, you recall, is Donnie’s Ego – his mirror image, and is the personification of Donnie’s fear of death. Remember – this is coaching dissertation all an a dissertation your alternate reality where Donnie has asserted his will in the face of what he fears is raw determinism. Instead of predestination, he has opted to fight his dark shade (Frank, in Jungian lingo), who is both a devil figure and a good deity. For evidence of this, consider this short explanation of Jung’s individuation process and then listen to la resaca Jake Gyllenhaal’s explanation of the film. And here is Jake Gyllenhaal saying essentially that the film is your about the self-individuation process: Donnie is what he comes in contact with – the manifestations in the film are elements of his subconscious he must reconcile.
That is english not to say they are not real, as is the case with Inception, which has a very similar plot, and as I layed out here in my analysis. I disagree with Jake – I think we can tease out buying your what the objective meaning is, more or less. Jena Malone plays Gretchen Ross, Donnie’s girlfriend. When she arrives, she becomes the love interest, and thesis will function to wake Donnie up. This is precisely the function of the Anima and/or mother archetype. It would be tempting to say Donnie’s mother is the mother archetype, but she plays a minor role, so I suspect the two archetypes of anima and buying your mother are combined in Gretchen, since she awakens Donnie. But lets back up. When Donnie arrives at school and we have the iconic scene where Tears for Fears plays, the camera is noticeably sideways. This clues us in, both to the sideways nature of this alternate world, as well as the sideways, out of dissertation kilter nature of the school itself. Your! The entire social structure is askew, and Donnie is on jackie apparently the only one who has the guts to buying point this out. This is why Donnie is anti-hero.
The link to the Satanic/Luciferian nature of Donnie is found in the key scene where he explains the la resaca, meaning of the Graham Greene story, The Destructors, that “destruction is a form of your creation.” This is the mindset of the darkest of the dark – since reality is determined by consider the lobster, brute force and a dissertation raw materiality in an irresistible causal chain that cannot be broken, all actions are thus levelled and ontologically the same. Dissertation! There is thus no good or evil – all acts are part of the “machine,” and recall that Donnie will say to buying your the bully at the end, “Deus ex Machina” or God from the machine. The world, Donnie struggles to accept, appears to be a determined machine. Since this is the case, burning down Old Misery’s house is english learning qualitatively no different from a dissertation, destruction. This constitutes the most Satanic/gnostic element in the film. Recall as well that Graham Greene was a British intelligence agent, working for MI6. Donnie is drugged by BigPharma, and as a result of this, he continues to have intense experiences of rob lovich dissertation synchronicity, communication with the dead spirit, Frank, and visions of the future.
In the buying, famous scene where Donnie talks to Frank in the movie theater during Evil Dead, Frank responds that Donnie “wears a stupid human suit.” In one of the debates with Monitoff, Donnie was told that bodies are “vessels that travel along vectors in la resaca spacetime.” So Donnie is inhabited by a dissertation, the spirit of dead Frank, but since this is a gnostic/Jungian film, the external world is not a real, objective reality, but rather a projection of the psyche and the subconscious desires that are yet to be integrated. Learning Thesis! Since Donnie has not reconciled good and evil in himself, as well as male and female, and all dualities, he is presented as a “prisoner of fear” – ironically showing the Cunning Visions self-help infomercials to be *correct. This is a masterful use of irony and humor. But again, when I say “correct” only within the gnostic/Jungian paradigm – not correct in reality. Significant also is the fact that when Donnie leaves the buying a dissertation, movies, we see the sign for “The Last Temptation of Christ” playing, cluing us in that Donnie is a kind of anti-Christ hero – a gnostic savior, as the “Jesus” figure of the Last Temptation was in fact an dissertation unorthodox, gnostic/Nestorian portrayal of Christ. Now, I think with my Inception analysis and with this analysis, we have seen that the Jungian elements are there. And in case you think my further speculations about the gnostic and Satanic elements are going too far, I would ask you to consider Jung himself. You must understand the milieu this is working within. Carl Jung was himself a gnostic and in some form or fashion, an “Illuminist.” Observe as he explains that the archeytpes are not just symbols, but, in his actual description, gods, or demons.
In fact, not only that, he attributes the “discovery” of buying your all people having an anima to thesis the “Illuminati” at 1:54: There you go. Buying A Dissertation Your! So, by part 1 english, default, whether the buying your, writers know it or not, when you are heavily steeped in Jung, you are dealing in “Illuminism.” There is, in fact, an article Jung wrote about evil and the “anti-christ” where he argues that evil and anti-christ are as necessary as good and Christ. La Resaca! He argues that they are flip sides of the same coin. But back to the story.
Donnie sees a vision where the school is flooded, and buying a dissertation Frank leads him to english learning bust the water line, causing school to be out the next day. As a result, he is able to ask Gretchen out, and they “go together.” We see Samantha Darko, Donnie’s little sister, reading a poem titled “The Last Unicorn.” The unicorn’s name is Ariel, and is saved by your, a prince named “Justin,” who is translated to another world of “magic and wonder.” The poem seems irrelevant and out of place, unless we understand that this alternate world is dissertation Donnie’s alternate world where he (Justin) saves the unicorn (Ariel). Recall also that in Scripture, ‘Ariel’ is another name for buying a dissertation, Israel, so in terms of occult lore, it is a spirit in Judaism and gnosticism. See the hyperlink for all the associations, many of which could be relevant for Donnie Darko. Of particular note is the “wrathful” conception of “Ariel” from the gnostic text, the Pistis Sophia, which pictures “Ariel” as a destructive spirit — precisely what Donnie is. Wikipedia says (accurately): ” Ariel has been portrayed as a destructive spirit of retribution. In the Coptic Pistis Sophia , Ariel is in charge of rob lovich punishment in the lower world, corresponding with Ur of the Mandeans. (Possibly due to Ariel’s association with the Archangel Uriel who is often equated with Ur and said to serve the same role.) Both Ariel’s leonthromorphic and destructive attributes have led to associations with the deities Nemesis and buying Sekhmet, among others. However, Ariel’s position as a spirit of wrath seems to be more in dissertation keeping with Judeo-Christian tradition of heavenly servitude.
Ariel is usually depicted as a controller and punisher of demons or wicked spirits rather than a general retributive force.” Donnie, when he saves Gretchen, his Ariel, and buying a dissertation your has sex with her, reconciles with the anima and lets loose his sexual repression, which he had expressed under hypnosis to his therapist. Gretchen is his Ariel, and his anima. Thesis! It is buying when he unites with her that he then sees his destiny (at midnight), and 500 word on jackie it is when he looks into her soul that he sees his destiny – “cellar door.” When Donnie looks into Gretchen, his anima, sophia, Ariel, he sees a portal and hears “Cellar Door.” Donnie has realized his destiny, and he must face it – to travel to Roberta Sparrow’s house, where the continual synchronicities had been leading him all along. Buying! Roberta Sparrow was the ex-nun who became a radical atheist after writing her book on time travel.
She left the church and became ‘Grandma Death,’ as she is called throughout the film, hearkening to consider the lobster essay Lilith, as well as to Old Misery in the Graham Greene story. When Donnie arrives, what he discovers is that it is buying a dissertation his nemesis, the bully who is waiting at the Cellar Door, and that he must face the essay robinson, bully, as well as the fact that it is he who kills Frank. So Frank, the spirit who has been haunting him all along, and buying a dissertation your who figures as God and part a projection of his psyche, is also his shade, or darkside, representing his own evil. As a side note, “Cellar Door” is said by Drew Barrymore’s character to be the most beautiful combination of words in the English language. This is reference to Tolkien, and buying of course with Tolkien we associate the Eye of Sauron (another eye image), but it was also supposedly said by Poe and others.
Why is this important? For the same reason that Cobb in Inception has to english learning thesis reach the deepest levels of his subconscious – it is there that he has hidden away his shade, or darkside. For Donnie, it is at Roberta Sparrow’s house that he has hidden away the fact that he killed Frank, his sister’s boyfriend in rage for accidentally running over Gretchen. The “cellar door” is the doorway to the basement – in Jugian analysis, this is the subconscious realm, wherein man is the most evil and bestial. Donnie must face his fears – his evil – that he has, by his triumph of will (note that when he last visits the therapist, he is wearing a teeshort that says ‘Triumph” on it) and decision to be a superhero – an ubermensch, set in motion a course of events that leads to the death of his friends.
So the a dissertation your, resolution comes in the fact that Donnie decides to be a stoic – to accept his fate as Donnie Darko – the kid who was smashed in a freak jet accident. 500 Word Essay Robinson! The entire alternate world story is the elaborate story Donnie concocted because his world came to buying your an end – just as happened to Cobb in Inception. Resume! God is just a projection of the subconscious’ fear of death – and hence the buying a dissertation your, identification Donnie makes between Frank and God to his therapist. This is why Donnie says Deus ex Machina to the bully – God is a product of the determined machine, he realizes. Coaching! That is why the film poster has a collage figure of buying a dissertation all of Donnie’s projections/archetypes making up the God/death mask of Frank. And so we end with a rupture in the subconscious of others as a result of Donnie’s death. 1 English! It is as if they dreamed the alternate world Donnie constructed where he was the anti-hero, and they are noticeably distraught at his death on Halloween. So Donnie’s alternate world is one of fiction, and the reality is that one must face one’s fate stoically. So the film presents us with two false alternatives – a world where one is buying a dissertation a Crowleyan/Nietzschian dark hero who does as he lists, wreaking havoc, or a world where we are determined by purely brute natural forces. Is it better to english learning thesis be Donnie Darko, the dark hero who burns down the establishment, doing some good in buying a dissertation the process, like exposing Jim Cunningham, the self-help guru, as a pornographer, and essay ultimately killing two friends, or is it better to be a stoic acceptee of buying a dissertation fate – to b.com essay be that kid who died a crazy death in high school?
So it does devolve back to the free will, predestination debate, but only to pose it in a dissertation the context of the occult – will you be the overman, the anti-hero, the the lobster, Satanic Saint, or will you be the a dissertation your, obscure nobody? A gnostic, false dichotomy indeed. Consider supporting independent media and research. 26 Comments on Decoding Donnie Darko – Esoteric Analysis. Great review as usual. This is another movie I’m going to have to watch again. Thanks for coaching dissertation, including all the links.
Just wanted to comment on buying a dissertation your, Zeppelin’s logos before some douche bag tries to deny it’s luciferian symbolism. Rob Lovich Dissertation! I think I’ve made a strong argument to the contrary. Zeppelin’s Swan Song logo is based on the painting “Evening: Fall of Day”, by a dissertation, the 19th century Romantic Painter William Rimmer (1816-1879). It is allegedly of the Greek god Apollo but I question the learning thesis, veracity of this. Buying A Dissertation! There are no myths of Apollo falling from the heavens and Apollo, to the best of my knowledge, has never been depicted as a winged figure in classical art. Dissertation! As far as classical mythology is concerned, the more logical assumption would be that this is a dissertation your a picture of the fall of Icarus but that’s not how Rimmer billed it. One web page; http://www.mindworkshop.com/indcnt.html , says the following: “Evening or the on jackie robinson, Fall of Day depicts the god Apollo rising from the earth at sunset — pretty much everyone who sees it seems to buying think it’s Icarus, an angel or various christian devils.” It seems strange to essay on jackie robinson me that a painting called “Fall of Day” would be of Apollo rising from the earth at sun set. That really makes no sense. Even if this was Apollo it only makes sense to assume from the title and the hurled backwards position that the figure is meant to be perceived as falling. Rimmer associated with radical circles and was a Romantic painter.
Artists in this milieu often portrayed Lucifer as a rebellious hero and buying your role model for their anti-establishment causes. This was often done somewhat overtly, using classical figures such as Prometheus to symbolize Lucifer (such as Shelley and Goethe do with Prometheus) I think it is not unlikely that Rimmer might have been doing the dissertation, same in buying a dissertation claiming that this falling angelic figure is merely meant to be Apollo. This way he would be less likely to take flack from mainstream Christian audiences. “His art and writings demonstrate familiarity with contemporary areas of resume la resaca philosophical thought and experience such as Transcendentalism and Spiritualism…. His work also shows a knowledge of… artists like William Blake… (He had) an awareness of a dissertation your contemporary scientific and pseudo-scientific areas of investigation, among them photography, physiognomy, phrenology, typology, comparative anatomy, and Darwinian thought.” In the 19th century the booming Spiritualist movement often walked hand in hand with other forms of radicalism. Coaching! Many Spiritualists promulgated neo-gnostic doctrines, forms of utopian Communism and proto-Darwinian cosmologies.
The claimed to get their ideas from buying a dissertation your, Spirit beings. Coaching! The above mentioned influence of Blake is also worth noting, given his known radicalism and Luciferian gnostic leanings. Additionally, as you pointed out, modern occultism already draws a strong association between Lucifer (the light bearer) as the principle of illumination and the Sun. Apollo was, of your course, the Greek Sun god. Though popularized by Nietzsche the idea of Apollonian/Dionysian dualism is another mainstay of the occult, going back at least to the works of 17th century Rosicrucian Robert Fludd. Coaching! Certain twentieth century occult groups have depicted the biblical God as the god of Dionysian darkness and Lucifer as the liberating god of Apollonian light. Regardless of all this, you can bet your bottom dollar the boys from Led Zeppelin took this to be an image of Lucifer when they selected it as their logo. I mean, Jimmy Page bought Crowley’s house for God’s sakes. What do you think about Donnie Darko in relation to 9-11 by your, the way? Surprisingly I’ve never seen it mentioned on part essay, one of buying those lists of 9-11 predictive films. It went into production prior to robinson 9-11 and came out a dissertation like a moths after and features a house getting wiped out with part of a falling air plane.
I wonder if this is essay on jackie intentional? The Swaze plays Jim Cunningham. Buying A Dissertation! Here’s the meaning of the name Cunningham from http://genealogy.about.com/library/surnames/c/bl_name-CUNNINGHAM.htm. Definition: A place name from the Cunningham area in the Ayrshire district of Scotland, which, in turn, got its name from the words “cunny” or “coney” meaning rabbit and “hame” meaning home (rabbit’s home). This possibly connects with Frank’s rabbit like appearance. I remember a rabbit figures into the weird new age flick “The Last Mimzy” (along with Mandals) and Following the White Rabbit down the dissertation, hole (from Alice in Wonderland) is often used as a metaphor for gnostic awakening.
I think Morpheus says something about it in buying the Matrix. Following the White Rabbit is like Following the la resaca, Yellow Brick Road… they both lead to where the “Wiz” wants you to go. in the east, like Japan, the a dissertation, rabbit is the learning, symbol of the Moon… and the Moon controls Time, Months or Moons, thus the Pocket Watch of the WHite Rabbit. And the moon is buying a dissertation Hypnotic…. Resume! symbol of illusion… thus the hypnotist hypnotising with the watch on a chain… like the Rabbit has. One of the songs featured in the movie is “The killing Moon”… I also couldn’t place ‘Roberta Sparrow.” The Sparrow meme has shown up in several flicks – Jack Sparrow, The Number 23, and a dissertation your here…. “Though popularized by Nietzsche the idea of Apollonian/Dionysian dualism is another mainstay of the occult, going back at least to the works of la resaca 17th century Rosicrucian Robert Fludd. Certain twentieth century occult groups have depicted the biblical God as the god of Dionysian darkness and Lucifer as the liberating god of Apollonian light.
Regardless of all this, you can bet your bottom dollar the a dissertation, boys from Led Zeppelin took this to be an la resaca image of Lucifer when they selected it as their logo. I mean, Jimmy Page bought Crowley’s house for God’s sakes.” Absolutely. When you play an your album, the way it rotates, the Lucifer spins in the direction of being cast down. This exchange from Hamlet might explain the meaning of the name Sparrow, at least in the case of dissertation Donnie Darko anyway. The following is from buying, this page: Horatio: If your mind dislike any thing, obey it.
I will forestall their repair hither, and say you are not fit. Hamlet: Not a whit, we defy augury. There is special providence in the fall of a sparrow. If it be now, ’tis not to resume come; if it be not to come, it will be now; if it be not now, yet it will come—the readiness is all. Since no man, of aught he leaves, knows what is’t to leave betimes, let be. Hamlet Act 5, scene 2, 217–224. Hamlet’s stepfather, King Claudius, has arranged a fencing match between the prince and Laertes.
Laertes happens to be the son of Polonius (whom Hamlet has slain) and the brother of Ophelia (who has gone mad and committed suicide as a result of Hamlet’s actions). Hamlet and buying a dissertation his friend Horatio well know that the king desperately wants the prince out of the way, and that Laertes is looking for revenge; the fencing match doesn’t promise to be an entirely playful affair. Hamlet has agreed to it nonetheless, and refuses Horatio’s offer to excuse him if he thinks better of things. Resume! “We defy augury”—that is, omens mean nothing to him. Hamlet will deliver himself over to his fate, because he finally realizes that it is out of his control. Before, he would have thought too precisely on the event, weighed its implications, and sought into its causes.
Now, he is of the opinion that “there’s special providence in the fall of a dissertation a sparrow,” and therefore a guiding hand behind his own fall, whenever it comes, now or in the future. Here, Hamlet echoes the Gospel according to St. Matthew, chapter 10: “And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is coaching dissertation able to destroy both soul and a dissertation body in hell./ Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father” (King James version). Here Hamlet embraces his own destruction as a predestined course. Very similar to the themes your discussing in Donnie Darko.
Especially if Roberta Sparrow represents determinism. Correct me if I’m wrong but isn’t Number 23 also about a guy going nuts thinking he’s following some kind of predetermined course (I haven’t seen 23 yet)? I don’t know how Captain Jack would figure in though. It recently saw Gyllenhaal in Prince of Persia, in coaching dissertation which he plays a guy who can travel backwards in a dissertation time and do events over altering his destiny. There’s more of that weird over specific typecasting I always see popping up. I would like to point out that it is debateable whether or not Ophelia’s death was a suicide. Other than that though, I really agree with what you had to say about Hamlet and Donnie. Agree – I’ve always thought otherwise. She was an intelligent, deliberate character.
Also re Dionysius, according to Jung and later phiosophers/writers, should be interpreted as the god of ecstacy, not doom n drunks. Thanks for this review, although it feels more like an academic essay than a review (I mean that in the best possible way; I’m doing a PhD) and I love thoughtful writing. I have always loved this movie since it came out, watched it many times and talked details with friends etc. Consider! My one question, and I hope it’s not a dumb one: what is the a dissertation, painting in the background of the psychiatrist’s office? It seems to be significant, but I can’t track it down. Also, it looks similar to the Obama painting which of course came out part 1 english essay many years later. This is another great analysis only just read it. Thanks. I love this film. So much going on your, in it.
Just wanted add something that I noticed about the Cinema scene when Donnie speaks to Frank: This is basically the lay-out of their car/gun scene later on….. The the two of them speak to each other while no one else is around. Frank removes his mask. The bullet-shot eye is consider audio visible. Meanwhile Gretchen is a dissertation your asleep between them (as though dead). Frank refers to Donnie’s ‘man suit’ (he’s wearing a human skeleton man suit when they meet at rob lovich dissertation the car accident). And also, the Evil Dead film they’re watching heavily features a cellar door. Keep up the good work!
Accordint to Led Zeppelin, the painting is of Icarus, not Lucifer or Apollo: http://www.mindworkshop.com/indcnt.html. Scroll down to the bottom for your, the original sketch by Rimmer that inspired it. When you have time please look at this short analysis of Donnie Darko its amazing: http://www.closertogod.net/main/thoughts/worlddetail/darko.htm. I just want to point out that if you pause the movie when Samantha has the poem in her hands, right before Donnie starts to read her poem out loud at the bus stop, you will see that the thesis, name of the unicorn in the poem is “Arien”, not “Ariel” like you mentioned in your review. So I’m not sure if the stuff you wrote about Ariel meaning Israel is relevant here. It’s also interesting to note that Arien is the name of a character in one of J.R.R. Tolkien’s legendarium, specifically his book “The Silmarillion”.
A couple of quotes from the book and buying from Tolkien himself that give insight into the character/book and have similarities to “Donnie Darko” are: 1) Arien is the maiden whom the Valar chose from learning thesis, among the Maiar to guide the buying a dissertation, vessel of the Sun (“Arien”, Wikipedia). 2) On The Silmarillion: “This legendarium ends with a vision of the end of the world, its breaking and essay remaking, and the recovery of the buying, Silmarilli and the ‘light before the Sun’ ….” ([Tolkien’s] letter to Milton Waldman, written c.1951)(“Tolkien’s legendarium”, Wikipedia). I also have researched and found that J.R.R. Tolkien was involved in the occult and part of an occult society The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. I wonder if it’s a coincidence that the “Cellar Door” reference was also stated by J.R.R. Dissertation! Tolkien. It seems like there could be a connection between the film and J.R.R. Tolkien.
According to some people I met at school long ago who were into your, the occult J.R.R. Thesis! Tolkien, like H.P. Lovecraft based most of a dissertation your his “fictional” world in real ancient history. Of course.. I assume… romanticising it here and there. All the Tolkien Gods have Roman-Olympian equivalents like Mondos is Hades. Sauran is obviously Satan the resume, great Dragon or TYRNAT-O-SAURON Rex the most popularised dinosaur/dragon. Donnie kills Frank, who represents his unwillingness and fear to buying your die, expressing his new found acceptance of 500 word essay on jackie death, which culminates with his, “accepted” death by the engine.
He know has the knowledge he did not die alone as Grandma Death said he would, but died together with all the buying, individuals his death helped to save and 500 word on jackie robinson the individuals his death hurt. The individuals he loves that he has to save by dying are represented by, “celler door”, which is uttered when he last thinks about Gretchen. I am surprised you go down this whole Jungian rabbit-hole while ignoring the Philosophy of Time Travel text entirely. How do you reconcile the plain language of the Philosophy of Time Travel (which leads each scene in the director’s cut) with you Jungian theory to exclude all others? “There’s chapters in that book, it just can’t be a coincidence”
If we want to be honest, Donnie Darko is a shadow on a cave wall. If all you ever see are shadows, it is cream of the buying your, crop. Nevertheless, a shadow it remains. English Learning! Hence its very name. There is at least some likelihood I am talking to buying myself. You look great. I think you are being too glib in your references to the “NeoCon” Establishment. There are several factions in the evolving Elite ruling class, some in conflict, some in alliance as time marches on. It is easy to show that Reagan was basically the english learning, front man for the conservative Catholic Church of John Paul II in conflict with the modernist, secularist Rockefeller Establishment of a dissertation mind control, drugs, the coaching dissertation, occult, etc. The prominence of the Pope’s Sovereign Military Order of the Knights of Malta in Reagan’s Administration is proof enough: Casey at the CIA and a dissertation your more. The 80s Reagan era was an insurgency against the long long ensconced Rockefeller Establishment.
However, as shown when the the lobster essay, RINO (Rockefeller Republican) Elite forced Rockefeller minion George Bush on a dissertation your, Reagan at the Convention it was presaged that Reagan would have to coaching dissertation fight step by step. The Rockefeller controlled Congress wouldn’t let him fight Communism directly even in the Western Hemisphere, hence Iran / Contra / Israel, etc. A Dissertation! Zionist NeoCons, shepherded into conservatism by William Buckley, were given space by Reagan, but they weren’t leading. NeoCons attempted to lead under George “W” Bush, but were abandoned when the Rockefeller / Saudi camarilla ordered “W” to english learning stand down via Saudi lawyer James Baker and buying a dissertation your old man Bush. Coaching Dissertation! The NeoCons were then purged. . . . Well, I can go on and on. . . Lloyd Miller a-albionic.com. Seems like Donnie’s life was interrupted by your, random event, the b.com part 1 english essay, fall of the 747 engine into his bedroom. In his death throws, the subconscious concocts a dream to resolve his life situation. Of course, the subconscious has only split seconds to do this, but, to Donnie, it is made to seem like 28 days. Nothing in the dream should be taken literally. Contrary to your analysis, we don’t learn literal truth in the dream, but only symbolic truth about Donnie. As per Jung, all the characters in the dream are projected aspects of Donnie, not literal reality.
I am still confused, like I missed something, regarding Donnie’s relationship to his sister’s boyfriend Frank. I wrote this one several years back and yeah I’d probably revise some of your it nowadays. I watched parts over again and am still can’t find substantial clues as to what his sister’s boyfriend “Frank” means to Donnie. Perhaps we are supposed to speculate that Frank, an older boy, traumatized Donnie at some point in coaching dissertation the past and “killed” his anima, represented by Gretchen. It is not uncommon for older boys to sexually traumatize younger brothers and/or neighbors when they reach puberty. This can do severe damage to masculine development. Normally, I wouldn’t post really personal stuff, but this is to rich to pass up.
After watching Donnie Darko, I fell asleep and a dissertation had a stark dream. I found myself making love to a girl I knew from learning, “teenhood” and apologizing for hurting her feelings when I rejected her advances in Jr. High. She was one of the most dynamic girls in the school, physically and intellectually. She and some of the boys “after her” were deep into puberty or even fully mature while my puberty had hardly begun. That, of course, was why I rejected her enthusiastic, pure advances. I was humiliated and decided the only way out was to hurt her feelings so as to avoid further humiliation. The dream finally resolved the almost forgotten incident and buying damage to my anima. Of course, the b.com part essay, time travel is just a device of the subconscious in constructing its archetypical dream review of Donnie’s life. It’s not what the buying, end of life, final dream is about.
Just watched Southland Tales and found it tantalizing, but frustratingly confusing to on jackie robinson the point of boredom. Couldn’t “grock” it. Order Signed Copies of buying a dissertation My Book Esoteric Hollywood Here! If you like this analysis, purchase a signed copy of my book here.
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Through the Prism of IT Transformation for Tomorrow’s Enterprise Datacenters: Interview with Annie Shum. ?As indicated in our recent post “Extending the Scope of the Agile Executive”, Cote and a dissertation your, I have recently reached the conclusion that The Agile Executive needs to english thesis cover structural changes in buying a dissertation your order to give a forward-looking view to resume la resaca its readers. Buying Your! We start the coaching, coverage of structural changes that are relevant to a dissertation your Agile with an interview with Annie Shum, VP of Advanced Technology, Amdocs Corp. We cover a broad panorama in this interview with Annie. La Resaca! Here are some items that may be of special interest to a dissertation your the reader who focuses on Agile methods, processes and governance in a broad sense – from programming to IT operations and part, anything in between: Unleashing disruptive transformations Supply and demand – the two sides of the IT “coin” Open source software in general and buying a dissertation, OpenStack in particular The impact of social networking and other Web 2.0 tools Three billion downloads and counting… Finding the rob lovich, “right” balance between hierarchical command-control and bottom-up empowerment “Self-service” IT service delivery/deployment Forthcoming changes in IT system administration and the rise of buying, DevOps How to gain freedom from a variety of low-level operational tasks and controls of physical infrastructure Provisioning and over provisioning Many others… Annie answers all questions with data, insights and 500 word essay on jackie robinson, passion. A Dissertation Your! No surprises there… Israel: Nancy Foy immortalized the monolithic International Business Machines Corporation in her classic “ The Sun Never Sets on IBM .” Much has changed, of course, since the book was published in the 70’s. For quite a few years IBM has been deconstructing its business design, its organizational structure and both internal and external processes.
By some accounts, prior to Gerstner IBM had even been contemplating reforming itself as a bunch of independent companies. The contrast to IBM’s announcement a couple of weeks ago about putting both software and hardware under one hand is noteworthy. What do you make of it, Annie? Is this a new development? Or is it a blast from the past? Annie: Interesting question but I would be remiss if I failed to learning point out that I don’t have a crystal ball or the expertise to predict reliably whether this will be an isolated case or a trend-setter. Although the arguably radical IBM organizational restructuring in management is a dissertation your, newsworthy, I am not especially interested in consider looking at it purely from the perspective of vendor management structure because it is your, merely a means to an end.
What intrigues me is the rationale behind this key announcement. In particular, I am interested in envisioning the more profound and potentially game-changing, if not disruptive, transformation that IBM hopes to unleash by rob lovich, adopting this bold organizational restructuring with likely (significant) risks. To better understand this new undertaking, I think it would be instructive to a dissertation your analyze it from the supply side as well as the demand side. So let’s break up the narrative: first by looking at the supply side, namely the IT service providers/system vendors, followed by the second half of the narrative, the customers/consumers. Israel: I am intrigued by your supply side/demand side approach. Please elaborate. Annie: To understand the supply side, consider the three major IT vendor announcements made during the week of July 19, 2010. Rob Lovich! Not as three disparate events. Instead, by putting them in your context and connecting the dots among them, we can uncover some very interesting insights into emerging trends of the IT industry in general and thesis, actionable guidelines for tomorrow’s enterprise datacenters in particular. Let’s begin with the May 2010 report from Saugatuck Research titled, “Gorillas In the Cloud: Applying Saugatuck’s “Master Brand” Model to Cloud IT” whereby “Master Brands” refer to those vendors (and service providers) that dominate and influence IT marketplaces, technologies and/or user accounts.
This May report sets the stage for the latest Saugatuck research alert titled, “One-Stop Shopping – Major Vendors Acquire Assets for the Cloud”. Your! This research alert describes how increasing numbers of major vendors are striving to 1 english become the “sole source for offerings up and down the IT EcoStack™ targeting the Cloud.” As if on buying your, cue, IBM released two major announcements just this past week. First, on July 20, 2010, InformationWeek reported that IBM plans[i] to combine hardware and software to spur the company’s efforts to deliver bundled, plug-and-play systems. Dissertation! According to Sam Palmisano, the core strategy pivots on producing tightly bundled computer systems that “feature chips, middleware, and business software designed from the ground up to support Cloud Computing and other new-wave IT architectures.” To some long-standing industry observers, this strategy may appear to be “back to the future” and buying your, IBM is essay, simply returning to a dissertation your its roots after a prolonged hiatus from learning its original business model. A Dissertation Your! There is, however, an important historical footnote.
Almost five decades ago, due to concerns of monopoly antitrust abuses stemming from the bundling of hardware and software in la resaca the IBM mainframe systems, the US government took legal action leading to IBM’s acceptance of the 1956 Consent Decree. Today, unlike the past, IBM no longer dominates the computer systems market. Your! In fact, there is a growing trend towards bundled systems, mainly by the “Master Brands”, to “mask” complexity for customers as they embark on implementing complex IT endeavors including key programs such as datacenter consolidation, server/storage virtualization, predictive analytics, SOA/BPM, Cloud Computing (public, private or hybrid), and Green IT. For example, Oracle acquired Sun Microsystems in 2009 for rob lovich dissertation $7.4 billion to support what InformationWeek described as Larry Ellison’s “applications-to-disk” strategy, while HP and Microsoft earlier this year unveiled a multi-million dollar initiative under which they will jointly engineer servers and software. It is likely that the timeline of the a dissertation your, July 19 IBM announcement was influenced (perhaps even pressured) by resume la resaca, its rivals taking a similar approach to address evolving enterprise datacenters. To expedite this strategy to deliver bundled “plug-and-play” systems, IBM first announced sweeping organizational restructuring to foster internal collaboration and buying your, harness synergies across products and LOBs. Dissertation! Clearly, the biggest change is the management restructuring by consolidating key hardware and software divisions under the buying your, watch of a single executive, Steve Mills who’s a longtime IBM software chief. Next, just three days later on english, the heels of this organizational makeover, IBM made another major announcement on a dissertation your, July 22, 2010 amidst much fanfare and consider the lobster essay, hype. Presenting the vision of a new “Dimension in Computing” designed to buying a dissertation control multi-platform datacenter operational costs and (significantly reduce complexity), IBM announced a new hybrid “system of systems” platform that unifies IT for efficient service delivery and large-scale datacenter simplification.
Dubbed a “datacenter in a box” or a “cloud in a box[ii]”, it integrates the new super powerful and energy-efficient mainframe zEnterprise, 196 running z/OS and the zEnterprise BladeCenter Extension zBX, running Linux and AIX. Essay Robinson! By extending the System Z’s qualities of service (spanning security, scalability, availability, efficiency and virtualization) to enable Cloud readiness and optimized service delivery for a dissertation enterprises, IBM likely is promoting its strength in la resaca building private Clouds for buying large enterprises. See the following two slides from the IBM July 22 announcement. Israel: So it looks like the rob lovich dissertation, IT industry is heading towards more “power” consolidation of buying your, mega vendors or as you referenced earlier, “Master Brands”. Is this a fait accompli? If so, is resume, it a matter of channeling demand toward one-stop-shopping irrespective of integration realities underneath? Isn’t there a danger to this trend?” Annie: Despite these high profile announcements by the major vendors, it is far from a dissertation fait accompli. And yes, your comments are only too real especially for rob lovich dissertation those who have lived through the era of monopolies and antitrust concerns. Frankly, many people believe that such a trend may be a clear threat in the presently emerging era.
While I don’t want to downplay the risk and your, potential damage of learning, antitrust abuses, I believe there are some factors at work here to counteract, or at least limit, unchecked monopolies in the IT industry. In this Internet age with the rise of buying, “Consumerization of IT”, catalyzed by essay, the nearly ubiquitous access to social networking and other Web 2.0 tools, IT has permeated almost every market sector in our society. The set of functions and services supported and enabled by IT has become exceedingly vast, diverse and complex such that no single business model or supplier is in a position to dominate, let alone destroy all others. The era when a handful of your, proprietary stalwart vendors dominated the IT industry is b.com part essay, all but over. Just this past decade, we have witnessed the buying your, meteoric rise of resume, Google, Facebook and more recently, Twitter. A growing formidable force, namely the a dissertation your, open source software and coaching dissertation, its bottom-up self-organizing community, powers as well as empowers most if not all of the Web 2.0 companies. Your! At this point in our discussion, it is apt to segue to the third vendor announcement during the english thesis, week of July 19, 2010. On July 19, Cloud service provider RackSpace with NASA announced the buying your, sponsorship of the resume la resaca, project: OpenStack, an open source IaaS Cloud platform. Included in the announcement is a dissertation your, a diverse group of computer system providers from across the english learning, technology industry like CITRIX, DELL, NTT DATA, RIGHTSCALE and a dissertation, others to drive a deployable, totally open cloud solution.
According to their mission statement, OpenStack is designed to foster the la resaca, emergence of technology standards and Cloud interoperability. One of the primary objectives is to facilitate enterprises to buying your avoid vendor lock-in. Israel: This appears to be a very timely announcement given that “vendor lock-in” is one of the top concerns confronting enterprises as they evaluate and plan for the transition to Cloud Computing. Having said that, are we not back to “square zero” – striking a balance between openness and “one-stop shopping” tight integration? Annie: Yes indeed. Although some industry observers describe the resume la resaca, issue as “vendor lock-in”, others see it as a broader issue describing it as the buying a dissertation your, “challenge/difficulty of bringing back in-house” or the “lack of interoperability standards for seamless portability”. For example, in the 2009 Cloud Computing survey conducted by IDC, over 80% surveyed rated this issue under both labels to la resaca be very important. Incidentally, I should point out that “vendor lock-in” is neither a new nor a unique issue with Cloud Computing.
On the contrary, it is a long-standing “problem” going all the way back from the early days of mainframe computing and culminating with the government versus IBM antitrust lawsuit in the ‘50s as we discussed earlier. Interestingly, there are many forms and variants of vendor lock-in and they are not all equal. For example, many industry observers have been unhappy with the proprietary development and delivery model that Apple imposed on the iPod/iPhone/iPad. Although the risk of “vendor lock-in” may be real, any negative impact on your, the ever-growing large and loyal Apple customer base seems minimal. Just think about the run-away successful App Store.
It is heavily “curated” by Apple. Yet since its opening on July 10, 2008, there have been more than one hundred thousand available apps in App Store, over dissertation, two billion application downloads (as of November 2009), and reaching three billion downloads by January 2010. Steve Jobs hailed this as a landmark event: “Three billion applications downloaded in less than 18 months – this is like nothing we’ve ever seen before.” Sorry we digressed. So let’s resume our discussion of the recent major announcements. In a nutshell, the a dissertation your, OpenStack announcement attempts to rob lovich dissertation address the issue directly by a dissertation your, allowing any organization to create and offer Cloud Computing capabilities using open source software freely available under the Apache 2.0 license running on standard hardware. Now this gets interesting: a tale of two diametrically opposite strategies. On one hand, we have IBM announcing the high performance zEnterprise 196 as a hybrid integrated multi-architecture “datacenter /Cloud in a box”. The goal is to learning thesis mask complexity and maximize efficiency: infrastructure (management /admin costs savings up to buying 70%) and energy consumption (up to 82% energy usage reduction) with a bundled technology stack: integrating multi-platforms, infrastructure and 500 word on jackie, management (spanning service, platform and hardware). A principal concern of your, this proprietary single vendor approach is the risk of english learning, “vendor lock-in”. On the your, other hand, the OpenStack is “DIY” based on an open source development platform.
The goal of OpenStack is the learning thesis, following: “Anyone can run it, build on it, or submit changes back to the project. We strongly believe that an open development model is the only way to foster badly-needed cloud standards, remove the fear of proprietary lock-in for buying cloud customers, and create a large ecosystem that spans Cloud providers.” The cons/challenges of this approach are probably similar to conventional “DIY” open source projects. I should clarify that this dichotomy may be seen as an entire spectrum. As noted here IBM, VMware, etc on one hand, and RackSpace, Eucalyptus, etc on the other hand, exemplify the two end-points bookending the the lobster essay, dichotomy spectrum. Along the spectrum, there are a growing number of intermediate options/offerings (with a rising number of variations) by a wide variety of IT Cloud service vendors: stalwart vendors including Amazon, Microsoft, Google, Salesforce.com, etc as well as young companies and startups such as RackSpace, RightScale, Boomi, Canonical, Cloudkick, Opscode, etc. Israel: Is this shaping up to a dissertation be a battle between two diametrically opposite strategies? And if so, which one will come out on top? Or is it a draw? Annie: To me, a similar dichotomy has already existed previously in the IT industry. For example, think Apple versus Google. Consider the modus operandi of the Apple core business model (“close or at least closely curated” to optimize user experience and quality) versus that of coaching dissertation, Google’s (“open standards/APIs” to buying a dissertation your maximize opportunities for 3 rd party development participation).
Insofar as whether bundled systems or “Cloud in a box” versus open source “DIY” will be the ultimate winner, I have to defer to other industry observers with more experience such as you. Perhaps in our future QA meet-up, I am interested to hear your views on how the competition may be settled eventually. However, while we all await the uncertain outcome, IT practitioners should be mindful that the dichotomy spectrum would have profound implications not only on the supply side but also on the demand side. In particular, because the offerings from the dichotomy spectrum will be rapidly evolving, the essay, fluidity will very likely confound and buying your, confuse users/consumers as they attempt to balance a convoluted set of different tradeoffs. Many enterprise IT practitioners will be under pressure to make difficult and ambiguous choices by picking one or more evolving offerings over other evolving offerings for english learning building the foundation of tomorrow’s enterprise datacenters in the Cloud era. Israel: Good timing. So far in our QA today, you have focused on the first half of the a dissertation your, narrative – namely, the supply side, now let’s continue to part 2 of your narrative, namely, the demand side. Annie : Earlier, I discussed the supply side by connecting the dots among three key announcements during the week of consider the lobster, July 19. Now similarly for the demand side, I will suggest a few more dots that I believe should be connected. Your! Specifically, I suggest connecting the english learning, following trends:
The growing complexities and inefficiencies of on-premises enterprise datacenters; The inevitable rise of alternative delivery and deployment models for IT services; and The advent of buying your, Cloud Computing: a long-standing vision whose time may finally arrive. Several months ago, I published a guest post on your blog site entitled “The Urgency of Now.” You might recall that I began the la resaca, post with some sobering and perhaps even alarming statistics about the gross inefficiency of traditional on-premises enterprise datacenters. Here again is the Enterprise Datacenter Index at–a-glance: In summary, enterprise IT faces a “crisis of staggering complexity” and your, IT infrastructure is part 1 english, reaching a “breaking point” marked by such salient factors/trends[iii] as the following: 1.5 X : Information explosion driving over fifty percent yearly growth in storage shipments; 85% idle : Over-provisioned waste primarily in distributed computing environments e.g. typical computing resources (capacity) remain idle for an average of over eighty percent; $40 Billion or 3.5% of sales: Retail industries annual loss due to (supply) value chain inefficiencies; 60-70% IT spending on buying, maintenance/overhead : Overall IT spending profile shows that the lion’s share of IT expenses goes towards overhead and maintenance. Maintenance overhead: seventy cents per dollar is spent on maintaining IT infrastructures at the expense of english learning thesis, adding new capabilities; Now consider the a dissertation, following scenario.
Suppose enterprise IT could choose an alternative set of “self-service” IT service delivery/deployment models that would be orthogonal to traditional hierarchical command-and-control Cap-ex based datacenters. Instead of owning and tightly controlling its own private internal datacenter and purchasing capital resources up front, an organization on-demand would “rent” pooled computing resources hosted on the provider’s multi-tenant environment. The Internet would serve as the global infrastructure “grid” and all services would be delivered through Web APIs. In lieu of having a dedicated IT staff administering IT operations, users could avoid lengthy red-tape delay and access directly/immediately to provision as well as to manage computing capacity as “self-service IT”. In addition, instead of formal contracts and protracted delay in learning thesis hardware procurement, an organization would pay for access at any time to “unlimited” computing capacity simply with a credit card. Because there would not be formal contracts imposing preset time commitments, both entry and exit would be friction-free. In this way, an organization could accelerate time-to-value/market and help to catalyze experimentation and innovative endeavor. Furthermore, CIOs of enterprise IT could avoid or mitigate the lose-lose dilemma because they would not be restricted to choosing either a policy that leads to “waste due to over-provisioning” using peak usage estimates for capacity planning or a policy that can incur “risk due to under-provisioning” using non-peak estimates. Ideally, IT staff would “plan capacity based on typical usage” while confident that it could “scale dynamically at buying a dissertation your, peak times” to maintain performance and SLAs. Simply put, the resume, primary objectives for today’s organizations are not just about increasing speed and a dissertation your, efficiency for b.com part essay back office automation.
Rather, they also are about increasing speed and flexibility to adapt to changes by yielding judicious control to providers for on-demand utility computing services off-premises. Conceptually, this scenario is an overall vision of buying your, Cloud Computing. With the coaching, advent of Cloud Computing, the buying a dissertation your, vision of “Computing as a Utility” is beginning to take shape. Since the early days of time-sharing computing, that vision has taken a quantum leap towards reality. One of the earliest references to Utility Computing occurred in 1961 at the MIT Centennial.
On that occasion, John McCarthy presented his vision of computing organized as a public utility. Just as the telephone system had developed into a major industry, Professor McCarthy envisioned that “Computing as a Utility” could one day become the basis of a new and important public industry. Rooted in english thesis the long-standing vision and hope for “Computing as a Utility” that began more than half a century ago, the genesis of Cloud Computing goes back a long way. To a growing number of industry observers, it is an old idea whose time may have finally arrived when, in 2006, Amazon began offering Cloud infrastructure services to the public as a utility. Despite initial skepticism, it was a watershed event in your the quest of Utility Computing and helped to usher in the first wave of industrial-strength commercial Cloud Computing offerings. Israel: To wrap up our discussion today, can you leave us with a few thoughts about some of the implications of Cloud Computing as enterprises begin their transition to the Cloud? Annie: Eric Schmidt, Google’s Chairman and Chief Executive has stated that Cloud computing will be “the defining technological shift of our Generation”. However, the media and vendor-spun hype (at times referred to as “cloud-washing”) around this topic has created an unprecedented level of confusion. Dissertation! Today, unabated sound and fury surrounding the Cloud Computing buzz continues and indeed, increases. Nevertheless, it is all but certain that there will be no “big or easy switch” for enterprise IT to buying transition overnight from running applications on learning thesis, premises to the Cloud.
Because the buying your, shift is dissertation, not an “all-or-nothing” or a “one size fits all” endeavor, stakeholders in enterprises should take a judicious measured approach to buying your balance different tradeoffs. To sustain the transition of enterprise IT to the Cloud will require not only technological advances but also new business models, new forms of IT organizational management structure and perhaps even new IT roles. One of the b.com part essay, “inconvenient” truths about embracing new user-empowerment technology trends and business models is the slippery slope of finding the “right” balance between hierarchical command-control and bottom-up empowerment. The harm (ineffectiveness and counter-productivity) of too much top-down control can be matched or even surpassed by the dangers of too little control. User empowerment without reasonable constraints can lead to a dissertation anarchy and chaos. A new form of organizational governance is clearly required to on jackie robinson avoid these problems. Striking a balance between planned orderliness and a dissertation, new emergent forces has been a challenging dynamic since the dawn of civilization. Many of the coaching, principles that have been refined over a dissertation, the millennia will have direct applicability for governing tomorrow’s world of “self-service” computing in the Cloud. Clearly, there will be direct implications to dissertation new scrutiny as well as the shaping/changing of security and governance related policies. Your! However, an organization should not overlook the human aspects and the cultural impact on the IT system administration personnel.
For example, resistance to sweeping changes driven by a fear of losing control and the stress over the prospect of losing employment can be one of the more profound ramifications that often are under the management radar. Cloud Computing likely will change the status quo of IT system administration and, perhaps in the future, could obviate the need for some traditional IT system skills. Cloud Computing, however, is also opening new opportunities for the technical IT community and enterprise IT personnel. There is a growing consensus that, as Cloud Computing evolves, the need for more business-minded IT staff will accelerate. Coaching Dissertation! Specifically, there likely will be an urgent need for your people “with broader business skills who can manage multiple supplier relationships.” Freed from a variety of low-level operational tasks and 500 word, controls of physical infrastructure via Cloud Computing, enterprise IT has the opportunity to buying a dissertation your promote system administration staff to higher-level decision makers as IT service facilitators and dissertation, SLA contracts managers.
In the near future, many traditional hierarchical command-control system operators may pursue a wider array of IT professional opportunities spanning the roles of enterprise architects; capacity planning; budget planning; performance assurance; and data, security, governance gatekeepers. Israel: This really resonates with what I see happening in many of my consulting engagements. Successful companies waste an buying a dissertation immense amount of b.com part essay, capital, energy and management attention on migrating from yesterday’s datacenter to today’s or tomorrow’s datacenter. When exposed to the pains of your, such migrations, I am always reminded of Peter Drucker’s quip “Companies make shoes!” It is beyond me why companies who makes shoes, cars, drugs or financial instruments would want to be prisoners of their own success, hopping over english, from one data center to a bigger data center every few years. Annie: Thanks for Peter Drucker’s quip. I am going to buying borrow it for my future use.
Israel: Annie, I can’t thank you enough for sharing your insights with us. You really connect the dots! [i] Based on the assumption that IT infrastructure performance can be greatly enhanced when each element is designed and brought to dissertation market as a component of a tightly integrated, optimized system. [ii] With this slogan, IBM is promoting the hybrid zEnterprise 196 integrating multiple architectures and OS in your a “box” as the la resaca, one stop shopping ready-made private Cloud for enterprises. [iii] Information source from IBM, The Open Group Conference, July 22, 2009.
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essay on the economy However, the problem is that economists may often disagree on the best solution to these challenges. Buying? For example, at the start of the great depression in 1930, leading economists in the UK Treasury suggested that the UK needed to balance the budget; i.e. Consider Audio? higher taxes, lower unemployment benefits. But, this made the recession deeper and led to buying, a fall in demand. The over production of 1 english, negative externalities (e.g. pollution/congestion) The underproduction of goods with positive externalities (e.g. Your? education, health care, public transport). Non-provision of Public Goods - (national defence, law and order) In recent years, behavioural economics has looked at the diverse range of factors that influence people's decisions. For example, behavioural economists have noted that individuals can exhibit present-bias focus. English Learning Thesis? This means placing excess importance on the current time period and making decisions our future self may regret. Buying Your? This includes over-consumption of demerit goods like alcohol and tobacco and on jackie, failure to save for a pension.
What may cause a run on the Pound? A run on the pound is more likely in a semi fixed exchange rate. e.g. when the buying Government is committed to trying to keep the Pound at a certain level. If markets feel this level is unsustainable they may keep selling Pounds until the government is forced to devalue. For example, in 1992, the UK tried to maintain value of Sterling in ERM, but, ultimately markets forced the UK out and we had to devalue. The graph above shows the near 20% devaluation in la resaca 1992. We also had a run on the pound in buying your the late 60s, causing the resume la resaca Wilson government to devalue pound. (In 1967, Wilson devalued pound by 15% after selling many foreign currency reserves trying to buying your, maintain value of Pound) In 1976, there was another on the Pound as markets feared the UK's fiscal position. Financial crisis depreciation.
The credit crunch of 2008 hit the consider UK economy hard because it was more reliant on the financial sector than most other economies. Other potential causes of buying a dissertation, a run on the Pound. High inflation - high inflation reduces the dissertation value of Pound Sterling. Foreign investors will be nervous of holding UK assets if the UK has high inflation. A Dissertation? Threat of sovereign debt default . If markets feel government borrowing is too high and unsustainable then there is a risk of foreigners losing their government bonds. Therefore, the market will sell bonds causing an learning thesis, outflow of a dissertation, foreign currency and rob lovich dissertation, fall in value of sterling. This can build up a momentum effect. As the fall in the currency can alarm other investors.
Large current account deficit. A large current account deficit implies we rely on capital flows to finance the current account deficit. Therefore, the UK would be more vulnerable to capital flight. In this circumstance a run on the Pound would be stronger. However, the UK has run a persistent current account deficit since the 1980s. (See: Current account deficit)
Is the UK at risk from a Run on the Pound? Would membership of Euro protect against a run on the Pound? Link between inflation and interest rates. Interest rates can influence the rate of inflation and the rate of economic growth. The Bank of England change the 'base' interest rate to try and target the government's inflation rate of 2% +/-1 Generally, an increase in inflation leads to higher interest rates.
A fall in the inflation rate and lower growth leads to lower interest rates. Graph Showing Inflation and Interest Rates in the UK. Real Interest Rates. Typically, nominal interest rates are 1 - 2 % higher than inflation. Buying? When interest rates are higher than inflation, it means savers are protected against the effects of inflation.
However, in coaching dissertation 2008 and 2011, we had a period of negative real interest rates. This meant the inflation rate was higher than the base rate. Your? A negative real interest rate is bad news for savers, but good news for dissertation borrowers. Response to Rising Inflation. If inflation rises, generally, the Bank of buying your, England increases interest rates to reduce inflationary pressure.
Higher interest rates tend to dissertation, reduce consumer spending. This is because homeowners see an increase in the cost of buying your, their mortgage payments and have less disposable income. Therefore, they spend less. Also, higher interest rates increase the incentive to save and reduce the incentive to 500 word essay, borrow. Buying? Therefore, an increase in interest rates tends to reduce the rate of english learning, economic growth and buying, prevent inflationary pressures. Resume La Resaca? See more on: Effects of Higher interest rates on economy Response to Fall in Inflation Rate. Lower interest rates increase motivation to buying a dissertation, borrow Lower interest rates mean cheaper mortgage payments and increase disposable income. Why A Cut in Interest Rates May Not Work.
The recession was so sharp that investment and consumption have fallen dramatically and so the cuts in interest rates have only mitigated the rob lovich dissertation extent of the downturn House Price falls provide a powerful negative impact on spending. Lower interest rates should boost spending. Buying A Dissertation Your? But, with house prices falling 20% since the resume peak, this has reduced consumer wealth and therefore reduced spending. Global downturn. Even sharp depreciation has been unable to boost export growth because of the extent of the economic downturn. Time Lags. A cut in interest rates can take a long time to have an effect. For example, people with a two-year fixed rate mortgage won't notice for buying your quite a long time. (until they re-mortgage.
Also, commercial banks may be reluctant to pass the interest rate cut onto rob lovich, consumers. In some circumstances, the Central Bank may not increase interest rates, despite an increase in buying your inflation. For example, in 2008 and 2011, we had a rise in inflation to 5%, but, the Central Bank kept interest rates low. Why? They kept interest rates low because: They felt inflation was just due to temporary cost-push factors like higher taxes and volatile food prices increasing They felt economy was at on jackie robinson risk of inflation. Therefore, it was more important to tolerate a temporarily higher inflation rate, than increase interest rates and push the economy back into a dissertation your, recession. Related. UK Exchange Rate Mechanism Crisis 1992. In October 1990, the rob lovich UK made the decision to join the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM)
The ERM was a semi-fixed exchange rate mechanism. The value of the Pound was supposed to be kept at a certain level against the DM. Keep inflation low Provide stability for exporters encouraging trade Enable countries to join the buying a dissertation single currency - the Euro. In the late 1980s, the chancellor, Nigel Lawson was keen to join the ERM. But, Mrs Thatcher with her euro-sceptic views wanted to stay out. The late 1980s saw an extraordinary economic boom - boosted by booming house prices, tax cuts and low interest rates.
Growth reached record levels of thesis, 5-6% a year. Enthusiastic government ministers talked of an buying a dissertation your, economic miracle - hoping Government policies had enabled, at long last, to catch up with other countries like Germany. However, this miracle was an illusion. High growth was unsustainable and led to inflation.(see: Lawson Boom) With inflation of 10%, Nigel Lawson was able to convince Mrs Thatcher that the UK would benefit from joining the ERM to help reduce inflation. Therefore, the UK joined in October 1990. at a rate of DM 2.95 to the Pound. Increasing interest rates - this attracts hot money flows - it is more attractive to save in UK with high interest rates. 500 Word? Buying pounds with foreign exchange reserves. However, these policies of protecting the value of the Pound was causing a serious economic downturn. High interest rates particularly hit the a dissertation housing market.
With rising house prices, many had taken out large mortgages to get on the property ladder. But, now interest rates were increasing, mortgage repayments became unaffordable and rob lovich dissertation, default rates increased. Combined with rising unemployment from the recession, the housing market saw a dramatic fall in prices that was to last 4 years. It was increasingly clear to the financial markets that the Pound was overvalued. The government was exhausting its foreign currency reserves in buying pounds. But, more problematically, the high interest rates was causing a serious recession and misery for homeowners. For a long time, the British government fought a losing battle. But, the foreign currency reserves of the British government were no match for the trillions of Pound Sterling traded on the foreign currency and the pound kept sliding. It is estimated that the Treasury used ?27 billion of foreign currency reserves trying to prop up the Pound. The Treasury estimated the final cost to buying a dissertation your, the taxpayer was estimated at ?3.4 billion.
An overvalued currency can lead to lower economic growth, due to uncompetitive exports. Trying to english, keep currency at a level which is too high, may require high real interest rates - which can cause economic downturn. It is hard to buck the market. Your? Even government intervention on foreign currency markets is english thesis, not sufficient to prevent depreciation if this is what reflects market fundamentals. A devaluation of the currency can be beneficial for the economy - under certain circumstances. This devaluation did not cause significant inflation, because the economy was depressed. UK Recession of 1991-92 UK devaluation of 1967 - many similarities UK Economic history Factors influencing exchange rate UK Crashes out of ERM in 1992 at BBC Unemployment is A Price well Worth Paying for lower inflation - Norman Lamont commenting on his own policies. European harmony - European Union countries are no longer at loggerheads like they were in the past.
With the exception of buying a dissertation, civil war in Yugoslavia (which wasn't in the EU at the time), Europe has managed to heal the divisions which were so painfully exposed in the two World Wars in the Twentieth Century. The EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2012 for la resaca helping to promote peace and international co-operation. Many Eastern European countries are keen to join the EU because they feel it will help promote economic and political stability. A Dissertation Your? Legal and consider the lobster essay, human rights. The EU has a strong commitment to human rights, preventing discrimination and the due process of law. This makes the EU attractive to countries, such as the Ukraine who wish to share in similar legal and human rights. A Dissertation? Prospect of membership has helped modernise countries, such as Turkey. The Copenhagen Criteria for rob lovich dissertation EU membership enshrine a commitment to human rights, the rule of law and buying a dissertation, a market economy.
The prospect of gaining membership of the EU, encourage countries to 500 word robinson, implement human rights legislation. Economic benefits. EU is one of strongest economic areas in the world. With 500 million people, it has 7.3% of the world's population but accounts for 23% of nominal global GDP. Free trade and buying a dissertation your, removal of non-tariff barriers have helped reduce costs and prices for consumers. Part 1 English Essay? Increased trade with the EU creates jobs and higher income. Over 52% of UK exports are to the EU.
Trade within the a dissertation your EU has increased 30% since 1992. According to one study - over ten years (1993-2003), the Single Market has boosted the essay EU’s GDP by ˆ877 billion [?588 billion]. This represents ˆ5,700 [?3,819] of extra income per household. A paper, Campos, Coricelli, and Moretti (2014) used the synthetic counterfactuals method (SCM) pioneered by Abadie and Gardeazabal (2003). The red dotted line shows estimated GDP if the country had not been a member of the EU. This shows that even more prosperous EU countries, such as the UK have benefited from higher GDP as a result of being in the EU. Free movement of labour and capital have helped create a more flexible economy. For example, UK and Ireland have benefited from the immigration of Eastern European workers to fill labour market shortages in certain areas, such as plumbing, nursing and buying a dissertation your, cleaning. Far from la resaca 'taking jobs', migration has helped increase productive capacity and makes a net contribution to tax revenues. (see impact of net migration) Free movement of labour also enables British people to live and work in Europe.
Roughly 1.6 million British citizens live in the EU outside the buying your UK ( UNCTAD World Investment Report 2010 ) EU migrants are net contributors to UK Treasury. EU migrants tend to be young. Therefore they pay taxes, but use a relatively small share of the NHS and pensions. See: Fiscal effects of immigration. Net migration has helped deal with the UK's demographic timebomb. EU has enabled people to la resaca, travel freely across national boundaries making trade and tourism easier and buying your, cheaper. Resume? According to the European Commission, more than 15 million EU citizens have moved to other EU countries to work or to enjoy their retirement. 1.5 million young people have completed part of their studies in another member state with the help of the buying Erasmus programme. The possibility to study abroad is considered positive by 84% of EU citizens. (benefits of EU) Easier to use qualifications in different member countries. This makes it easier to work abroad without having to retrain in english thesis different national qualifications.
Mutual recognition of safety standards and rules have helped reduce costs for firms. This has encouraged the development of small and medium business who rely on buying, the low cost of exports. Social charter enshrines protection for workers such as a maximum working week, right to collective bargaining and b.com 1 english, fair pay for a dissertation employment. European Arrest Warrant (EAW) scheme has made it easier to track criminals across the European continent. Environmental benefits of the learning EU. The EU has raised the quality of sea water and beeches, by implementing regulations on water standards 'Bathing Water Directive'. 92% of a dissertation, tourist locations now meet minimum water quality standards. (Clean water at Europa.eu) Tackling global warming. In 2006, the (EU) committed to reducing its global warming emissions by at least 20 percent of 1990 levels by b.com part 1 english, 2020.
The EU has also committed to spending $375 billion a year to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at a dissertation your least 80 percent by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. (global warmingpdf) Tackling acid rain. Environmental treaties which have sought to deal with European wide environmental problems such as acid rain. The EU has set strict restrictions on english learning thesis, emissions of pollutants, such as sulphur , and a dissertation your, other causes of acid rain. Dissertation? (BBC Link) Consumer benefits of the EU. EU competition policy has harmonised regulation of monopoly and cartel power within Europe. The EU competition policy seeks to avoid abuses of cartels / monopoly / dominant market power and protect the interest of the consumer. There has been successful deregulation of airlines, electricity and gas markets.
The EU has reduced the price of making mobile phone calls abroad. In 2007 EU legislation set maximum charges for making and receiving calls. Your? The EU also agreed with 14 mobile phone manufacturers to create a standard design for chargers from 2011 in order to make life easier for resume la resaca consumers and reduce wastage. In 2014, it is has voted to scrap roaming charges which will drastically reduce the cost of using a mobile phone abroad. (BBC link) Consumers are free to shop in any EU countries without paying any tariffs or excise duties when they return home. Buying A Dissertation? So what have the EU ever done for us, apart from straightening all those pesky bananas?
Recent posts on Brexit and robinson, Europe. Unemployment - A price worth paying for lower inflation? To some extent N.Lamont will claim to be vindicated by buying your, events. Although unemployment rose to dissertation, 3 million in the early 1990s, inflation was reduced and since then the economy has experienced a long period of uninterrupted growth without inflation and unemployment has fallen. 2. Costs of inflation. 1. Buying A Dissertation? Unemployment can last for a long time. Yet, this period of undoubted prosperity and rising living standards helped to mask a decline in dissertation the relative competitiveness of the UK economy. UK economic growth in the 1960s. There were brief dips in output, but these were not sustained. Lack of willingness / ability to innovate Poor industrial relations with a growing number of days lost to strike action. There was often a break down between owners and managers and increasingly militant trade unions.
Some argue this was exacerbated by Britain's class system. Whilst Japanese workers sang company songs with zest and loyalty, British workers were more likely to be working to a dissertation your, rule or considering strike action. Barbara Castle as Labour minister tried a moderate reforms of trades unions, through her white paper 'In Place of Strife '. However, the unions effectively lobbied Labour ministers and the reform bill was blocked. Complacency. Some argue that in the post-war period, the UK was affected by complacency of being a global power. This complacency was in stark contrast to the defeated countries of Germany and Japan, who put greater energy into business. Consider The Lobster? The UK was also hampered by coming to terms with letting go its Empire and trying to join Europe. In the 1960s, two applications to join the EEC were vetoed by the French. Lack of public sector infrastructure.
Burdened by buying your, high post-war debt, the UK struggled to invest in new transport and technologies. For example, the UK was still relying on b.com part 1 english, steam trains until the a dissertation your mid 1960s - later than many other countries who made switch to cheaper and more efficient electricity and diesel. Balance of Payments. In the 1960s, the trade deficit was seen as a vitally important economic statistic, with important politically considerations. Unfortunately, for the Harold Wilson government of the 1960s, the UK trade deficit was embarrassingly large - a result of the decline in competitiveness and a wish to retain a strong pound. Campaigns like 'Buy British' were surprisingly prominent, but, ultimately failed to la resaca, make any real dent in the trade deficit. The problem was that if you wanted a car or electrical good that worked - you were much better off buying from overseas. A Dissertation Your? If we made jokes about Skodas and Ladas in the 1980s, British Leyland was the coaching butt of many jokes during 60s and 70s. Despite the economic weaknesses of the 1960s, it was still an era of full employment and rising real wages. Compared to buying a dissertation, the rest of the Twentieth Century, the b.com part essay 1950s and 60s were a rare period of full employment.
In fact, there were serious labour shortages in industries, such as manufacturing and transport, leading to the mass immigration from buying a dissertation Commonwealth countries. Devaluation of 1967. It does not mean that the pound here in Britain, in your pocket or purse or in on jackie your bank, has been devalued. Buying? (BBC) But, it did cause the price of imports to rise and 500 word on jackie, contribute to rising inflation. It was also hoped the devaluation would tackle. Our decision to devalue attacks our problem at the root and that is why the international monetary community have rallied round. Buying A Dissertation? However, although it proved a temporary boost in resume competitiveness. It could not tackle the fundamental issues, such as productivity and labour relations. After the Second World War, the your UK was left with huge debts. National debt as a % of GDP exceeded 200% of GDP in the early 1950s.
Britain was reliant on essay on jackie, loans from the United States. Despite growth and a steady reduction in debt to GDP during the 1960s, the UK still required US help. The Lawson Boom of the late 1980s. The Lawson boom of the late 1980s was a classic example of a 'boom and bust' economic cycle. The late 1980s were a period of buying, rapid economic expansion.
This was caused by rising house prices, tax cuts, lower interest rates and high confidence. However, the boom caused a rise in inflation and a larger current account deficit. Policies to tackle this inflation caused the recession of 1991-92. The Lawson boom followed from the recession of 1981. This recession particularly affected the resume la resaca manufacturing sector and caused unemployment to rise to 3 million. By 1985, unemployment was still over 2.5 million people. However, from buying a dissertation your 1986 the rob lovich government made various decisions which helped to inflate the economy causing an a dissertation your, inflationary boom. Economic growth in the 1980s. In 1987 as a whole, output grew by getting on for 4? per cent., rather more than the rate of b.com part essay, inflation which averaged 4.2 per cent.
At the buying a dissertation your same time, unemployment fell faster than in any other year since the war, in learning thesis every region of the country, and more than in any other major nation. The plain fact is buying a dissertation your, that the British economy has been transformed. Prudent financial policies have given business and industry the confidence to expand, while supply side reforms have progressively removed the barriers to enterprise. (source) However, this was not the case and economic growth of 4%, led to a growing current account deficit and rising inflation rate. 4. The housing boom. The low-interest rates and the high consumer confidence sparked a housing boom. During the boom years, house prices rose by b.com, 300% (and more in places like London). Q4 1988 was the peak of the buying a dissertation your boom period with house prices rising over 30% at an annual rate. This boom in house prices caused a rise in household wealth and increased confidence. Equity withdrawal rose to record levels, which helped increase consumer spending.
By 1988 and 1989, the economy was growing at 5% a year (almost double the long run trend rate) Despite signs of overheating, the government were reluctant to react. Interest rates were increased, but not as quickly as they could have. Partly they believed there had been an economic miracle - enabling a higher long run trend rate of economic growth. But, also Nigel Lawson, didn't want higher interest rates to boost the value of the Pound above the 'unofficial exchange rate' he was following. This was a policy known as shadowing the dissertation D-Mark.
However, the fast growth meant that inflation started to creep up, eventually reaching over 8% in 1990. A widening current account deficit in the late 1980s was evidence of the buying a dissertation your economic boom. High consumer spending led to a rise in import spending causing a deterioration in the current account. It was also in the 1980s, that we saw rapid financial deregulation, which at rob lovich the time was considered beneficial. Buying A Dissertation? However, the financial deregulation of building societies was a factor behind the UK credit crunch of essay audio, 2008. A Dissertation? The Lawson Boom also saw a period of widening inequality - helped by coaching dissertation, cuts to a dissertation your, tax rates for high earners. One interesting outcome of the Lawson Boom was that it encouraged later governments to give responsibility of Monetary Policy to the Bank of England. The argument was that an independent Bank of essay robinson, England would avoid the political pressure to keep interest rates too low to achieve high growth. Related. How does austerity affect the economy? However, austerity, during a time of buying, economic weakness often leads to rob lovich dissertation, further falls in aggregate demand, higher unemployment and lower economic growth.
In some cases, austerity to reduce a budget deficit can be self-defeating, with sharp falls in buying a dissertation real GDP, causing debt to GDP ratios to continue to rise. However, in certain cases, 'fiscal austerity' can reduce budget deficits without causing negative economic growth. Lower inflation . Spending cuts will tend to rob lovich dissertation, lead to lower inflation. Firstly, the buying fall in aggregate demand (AD) will lead to lower inflationary pressures in essay the economy. A Dissertation? Also, if the coaching government limits public sector wages, this will put downward pressure on wages. Lower wage growth plays a key role in reducing underlying inflationary pressure.
Ireland has been one of more 'successful' countries which has embarked on austerity, but this shows GNP is still significantly below pre -crisis levels (when real GNP was growing at an average rate of close to 5% a year) The UK's budget deficit fell slower than expected. This was partly because growth forecasts proved overly-optimistic. The austerity measures led to a slowdown in growth. What determines the a dissertation impact of austerity? Exchange rate . Austerity is not as damaging if a country can devalue the exchange rate. This devaluation helps to resume, restore competitiveness much quicker than relying on internal devaluation. The depreciation helps boost export demand.
Countries in the Euro, can't devalue and so have to rely solely on internal devaluation to restore competitiveness. Should we worry about national debt? It is worth bearing in mind that in the 1940s, as well as paying for post war reconstruction, the UK set up the NHS and welfare state. There was no austerity panic in the 1940s! The high government debt levels of the 1940s and 1950s were not a barrier to a dissertation, the post war boom years of the rob lovich dissertation 1950s and 1960s which saw record levels of economic growth. An analogy. When I took out a mortgage loan of ?140,000, I was left with mortgage payments of ?800 a month.
In 2004, this was nearly 40% of my income. However, if my income increases by 3% a year. In 20 years time, it will be much easier to pay that mortgage payment of ?800, it will hopefully be 15% of my income. To buy a house, it makes sense to borrow a mortgage and pay back over 30-40 years. However, although national debt can be effectively managed, there are concerns when debt grows faster than National Income.
For example, in Greece debt to GDP has risen so quickly that it has proved very difficult to stop the ratio of debt to GDP rising. Buying? (partly because spending cuts to reduce the rob lovich deficit, caused lower GDP) As UK debt rose from 35% of GDP to 80% of your, GDP. Bond yields fell from 5% to 2% In other-words as debt rose, borrowing costs fell. Coaching Dissertation? This is buying, because in economic downturn, there is greater demand for government bonds. In some cases (such as Eurozone economies) higher levels of public debt pushed up bond yields. Higher bond yields are damaging to the economy. It increases the cost of debt interest payments and is a reflection investors are nervous about the liquidity of government debt. It forced the economies into austerity which caused a prolonged recession. The UK has seen a fall in bond yields during the recession of rob lovich dissertation, 2008-12. This is because, in a recession, private sector saving rises.
Therefore, there is demand for safe investments, such as government bonds. In a recession, people don't want to take risks, therefore demand for shares and private investment tends to fall. In a recession, government borrowing doesn't tend to your, cause crowding out. Government borrowing is merely mopping up private sector saving. Possible reasons to be concerned about government borrowing. However, an ageing population can be resolved without just increasing tax on young workers. The retirement age can be increase to keep the same% of population in la resaca workforce. 3. Inflationary Pressure. There is buying, a concern that higher levels of national debt can cause inflation.
If debt becomes too high, there may be insufficient investors to buy the government securities (the usual way of financing the debt). Therefore, the government may be tempted (or forced) to fill the shortfall in dissertation revenue by printing money. Printing money and increasing the money supply, will lead to inflation. The problem with inflation, is that it devalues the value of bonds, people will sell bonds, leading to higher interest rates on bonds and higher debt interest payments. If investors see inflation is your, getting out of control, people will not want to hold bonds. Foreign investors will sell their securities and resume la resaca, this will cause a devaluation in a dissertation the currency. This is particularly a problem for the US, where foreign countries hold a high % of the national debt.The hyperinflation of Germany in 1922-23 was caused by the government printing money to finance reparation payments to the allies. However, it should be pointed out, this hyperinflation is quite rare and only occurs if the government prints money recklessly without regard to consider audio, the fundamental economic situation. Quantitative easing in 2009-12 didn't cause inflation in buying a dissertation the UK and US. The increase in coaching the monetary base was very large, but the inflationary impact minimal. - Inflation and quantitative easing.
4. Crowding Out . It is argued that if government borrowing increases, it will cause crowding out your, of the english learning thesis private sector. If the private sector buy bonds it means the private sector has less funds for private sector investment. Also, if borrowing increases, interest rates may rise. Higher interest rates also reduce private sector spending and your, investment. However, in a recession, crowding out doesn't occur because the private sector want to buy government bonds 5. As National Debt increases as a % of consider the lobster essay, GDP, it means that the interest payments as a % of GDP may increase.
Therefore, higher levels of taxes have to be spent on buying a dissertation your, just financing the national debt. If the government increases debt during a period of economic growth - the higher borrowing is likely to crowd out the rob lovich dissertation private sector and lead to a decline in private sector investment. If there is a structural deficit caused by spending commitments which can't be met by buying, tax revenues. If the government responds to higher debt by printing money; this can cause inflation. e.g. case of Zimbabwe, Germany 1920s. But, note QE of 2008-12, didn't cause inflation in UK and US because of liquidity trap. How to deal with an ageing population.
How UK Pension spending as a % of GDP has increased in recent decades.
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Custom The History of Carnival essay paper writing service. The history of Carnivore can be can be traced hundred and hundreds of years ago when the Catholic faithful in Italy begun to hold a wild kind of buying celebration just a few days before the first day of Lent. On Jackie! This was majorly because the Lent period of forty days was marked by fasting and great torturing experiences. The word “carnevale” which represented the festival had its origin from the fact that the Catholics were not allowed to eat meat during Lent. It meant “to put away the meat.” With time, the celebration got fame and its knowledge and the practice went beyond the borders of Italy. Nations like France, Spain, and all the Catholic countries in Europe started to observe the festival. A Dissertation Your! These nations then began to spreading this practice to the rest of the coaching dissertation, world in what was seen to be a competition leading to what is witnessed today, carnival everywhere. With special attention to Brazil, this write up seeks to explain the origin and the reasons behind the development of the Carnival Festival. Key words: Carnival, Carnival festival, religion. The History of Carnival. There has controversy over when exactly the buying, Carnival festival began.
Honychurch (20011) refutes the position that the carnival might have emerged in Dominica after 1838. According to its findings, the origin of festival the festival can be traced back hundreds of years of the Afro-European cultural background. Flecha et al (2010) noted that this is the dissertation, time of the primitive European tribes who lived long before the rise of the Roman Empire. Honychurch (2011) notes that Carlival of this earlier time was linked to the pagan feasts done during the beginning of the spring season. It was celebrated to mark the buying, end of winter which is characterized by lack of enough food and to commemorate the commencement of the months of spring and summer which are normally fruitful. According to Honychurch (2011), report this is what the Romans later developed further and incorporated as one of the imperial cults. It was incorporated into the Christian calendar which was publicized in 304 BC.
It is 1 english essay, what later developed into what is known as the a dissertation your, Lupercalia festival which is usually celebrated on b.com part essay, the fifteenth of February every year. Honychurch (2011) records that approximately four hundred years from this time, there emerged a group of Christians who began persuading people into Christianity. Their work was mostly concentrated in Asia Minor and along the Mediterranean Coast. Their work led to conversion of a section of the population and your, hence the practice of different beliefs and customs in rob lovich, these areas. However, the Christians underwent several forms of persecutions by a dissertation your the successive Roman emperors. This only stopped when Constantine allowed freedom of worship making Christianity a recognized religion by the Roman Empire. Honychurch (2011) notes that because of the different believes and customs, it was not possible for the Christians to agree on which practices to embrace. Consider The Lobster Audio! Borland (2011) observes that a majority of the Christians still held to various folk beliefs which they had been practicing before their conversion into Christianity. According to Honychurch (2011), carnival was equally a result of the observance of Christian calendar. It notes that Carnival has its roots from a Roman Luperclia feast which was the church’s way of observing Lent.
Honychurch (2011) also notes that the word Lent originated from a phrase in Latin “carnem levare” that means “to put away meat”. In Italian language, the word “carnevale” is commonly known as the a dissertation, Shrove Tuesday and its interpretation also connotes the fulfillment of the coaching dissertation, sexual desires of the flesh and not just of the eating of meet. Rosenberg (2011) notes that such immoral forms of celebration were also part of the festival of Bacchus which was the Greek’s way of honoring Dionysus, the buying, god of wine. It was a celebrated by the Romans. The celebration involved the slaves exchanging their clothes with their masters, an exercise that normally took place as people were involved in excessive drinking. According to Rosenberg (2011), it was this ceremony that the Roman Catholic later modified into a festival commemorating the Ash Wednesday. However, the celebration further evolved into a bigger celebration characterized by music, food, alcohol, and sex. This was majorly done before Lent which was a forty days fasting and was to learning thesis come just before Easter. Even though this was not the intention of the your, church, the celebration was marked by a week of every kind of the lobster sinful act. Honychurch (2011) report notes that it was the strict observance of Lent that led to such forms of behavior.
According to its publication, the Christians had to go through sacrifices, denials and buying, self torture that were perceived as the demands of salvation. More demanding was the processions in consider, chains while having to move on one’s bended knees throughout the forty days. Honychurch notes that this was certainly the reason why the practitioners broke themselves loose into immoral celebrations shortly before the Ash Wednesday. It is noted that the religion especially the Catholic faithful have been so instrumental in the spread of the various aspects of the carnival. Honychurch (2011) notes that Europeans Catholic’s practice of acquiring colonies and taking with them the slaves led to buying your a further spread of the festival. Dissertation! Honychurch records that carnival is now famous in Mardi Gras in Louisiana. In addition, their writing indicates that the buying your, celebrations are now common in rob lovich dissertation, several other parts of the world especially in the Caribbean countries which are currently immersed into the practice. Brazil Carnival History. According to the Samba City Info (2011), Brazil Carnival history in Rio de Janeiro does not just have its roots in buying a dissertation your, the festival of Lent.
It noted that any discussion on essay audio, the history of the festival should take into account the influence of the Africans. Gerald (2011) recorded that the Portugal colonizers of Brazil carried with them their slaves into the country. This was the period between 17 th , 18, and a dissertation, the early 19 th century when the la resaca, slave trade had not yet been illegalized in Brazil. It is noted that by the early parts of the 19 th Century the Caribbean and South Africa had received more than 6,000,000 slaves. The slaves had a significant impact the buying your, way in coaching, which the Brazil Carnival was organized and the kind of events and instruments that were used in the festival (Gerald, 2011). Samba City Info (2011) noted that the origin of Brazil's carnival can be traced from a Portuguese entrudo festival which was the first form of Carnival to reach Brazil. This was an event characterized with chaos. It involved people throwing one another with various substances such mud and water and a thin wax spheres filled with perfume. The festival was commonly done along the buying your, streets of Brazil making it easily graduates into riots. An example was in the year 1853 when the police had to step in. This celebration was like what is today called Andean carnival celebrated by the Venezuelans.
Samba City Info (2011) noted that the masquerade carnival ball by english thesis Rio was conducted in the year 1840. This was then followed ten years later by the Carnival street parades. This showed a level of advancement as it utilized the a dissertation your, horse drawn floats and military bands. According to b.com part essay Samba City Info (2011), the Carnival got a big boost when it was joined by Samba in 1917. Samba then began mixing different styles like the Angolan semba, European polka, and African boutiques. It also included various touches of a dissertation Cuban habanera. Samba City Info (2011) notes that the today’s samba has its origin from the arrival of black the Brazilians who had come from Bahia to consider essay the Rio slums. These were majorly the slaves who had been left free following the criminalization of slave trade which marked the end of slavery in the country.
According to Samba City Info (2011), the commonly known as Brazil Rio Carnival history began in buying a dissertation your, 1860. It was majorly attended by the people of high social class who could afford expensive and private venues. They normally dressed themselves in masks and expensive costumes. The low class individuals who were unable to essay purchase the balls had an buying option of using the masks. They were then allowed to have their own celebrations besides their masters’ venues.
Samba City Info (2011) noted that the Carnival was later moved to Central Rio where it caused congestion in traffics. However, the essay robinson, problem resulted into the construction of the Sambodrome in a dissertation your, 1954 which was an improvement since it provided pleasure for both the local people and consider audio, the tourists. Currently, Carnival is organized by the samba schools whose first appearance was in a dissertation your, the year 1928. These schools are organized like the local associations which make them fit in dissertation, serving the interests of the communities in which they operate. By the year 1961 carnival experienced a great revolution following the buying a dissertation, mounting of the new sound systems by thesis the samba school. The samba school proceeded with its operation attracting more people because of its improved sound and rhythms.
According to the Samba City info (2011) this became one of the most defining age for a dissertation your, the samba schools. Dissertation! Today, the buying a dissertation your, schools have advanced to a point at which they are involved in english thesis, the provision of the basic resources like education and buying a dissertation your, healthcare to the community. This has been very instrumental in popularizing the schools since they serve a society characterized by high level of poverty. The Impact of African Religions on dissertation, the Development of the buying a dissertation your, Carnival. Allah we Organization (2011) noted that to date there are various African traditions which have been largely utilized to add value to the Caribbean festival arts.
He identified a number of such traditions. First were the ancient African traditions of parading and moving in circles through villages in costumes and masks as those which have been of great influence. According to Allah we Organization (2011), many people believed that circling villages could come with good lacks, solutions to various problems affecting people while also preventing the spirits of those who had died from haunting the living. Allah we Organization (2011) also observes that Carnival traditions have also borrowed greatly from the African tradition of putting together natural objects to help in creating sculptures, masks, and costumes. The objects include bones, grasses, beads, shells, fabric. Each of this objects was understood by the Africans as representing a given idea or spiritual force.
Another aspect of the African religion greatly utilized in the carnival festival is the use of feathers. The Africans had been using the feathers from the ancient time. They used to put them on their masks and headdresses to symbolize their ability to overcome various problems and challenges of life. These include: any form of essay on jackie robinson pains, heartbreaks, and buying your, all kinds of english learning thesis illness. Apart from a dissertation your, it significance in essay audio, protecting the people the Africans also used the feathers as s symbol of spiritual growth. Allah we Organization (2011) observes that the use of masks in Carnival has persisted to date where it helps in buying your, creating carnival costumes.
Other aspects of the African Religion that is used to date in Carnival festivals are the African dance and music. The two traditions enormously contributed to the transformation of the early carnival celebrations. The Samba City Info (2011) notes that the resume, most frequently used aspects of African music in the festival are the a dissertation, rhythms of the African drum and the large puppets. The festivals are also increasingly attended by stick fighters, and the stilt dancers as is english learning thesis, with the African celebrations. According to the Samba City Info (2011), the Africans also had a great contribution in the making of the street carnival history. Samba city notes that while Carnival expresses an buying a dissertation abstract kind of street theatre, the Africans on the other hand used costumes in their bands in resume la resaca, their styles. It is buying a dissertation your, further noted that the practice by the Carlival of going to the streets may have also come from the aspect of the Africans. Studies have shown that in the ancient times the Africans preferred to carry out their activities outdoor rather than indoor. Equally, the Africans have still embraced various practices that are related to the carnival festival. A clear example is the Egungun festival which involves the honoring of the ancestors by their extended family members.
During this festival, it is insisted that all people from a the same extended family put on clothes of the same colors. This is a sign of a band, which is la resaca, as well the a dissertation your, basic aspect of the history of the the lobster audio, Brazil Carnival. This is also the same case with the buying your, Rio de Janeiro festival. It is also observed that in certain circumstances, both the carnivals and the African religious practices grew together. The Lobster Essay! As discussed above, the carnivals festivals majorly began to be felt in the 1930 when it actually reached what could be seen as its peak. This was made possible by the emergence and contributions of the samba schools especially in the Rio de Janeiro. The inclusion of the buying a dissertation, African traditions in the Carnival festivals was further increased when the heavy African drums were extensively utilized. With the growth of both the African and essay audio, the European aspects of the carnival, people experienced more festivities along the a dissertation your, streets.
The Importance of the Festival. Allah we Organization (2011) observes that in today’s world, Carnivore plays a great role in uniting people of different races, nationalities and tribes. Consider The Lobster Essay! The organization sees Carnival as a good example of how culture can play a role in reuniting people. They give a case study of the Trinidad's carnival where people of buying different cultures come together for a period of five days annually. During the five days, the citizens forsake all differences and come together to celebrate their lives. Such a practice brought a great peace for resume la resaca, a country which had experienced the harsh rule by the colonialists, the Spain and the England (Bandyopadhyay Nascimento, 2010). Allah we Organization (2011) noted that it is the British rule that allowed the French to settle into the country together with their slaves. The organization explained that due to buying a dissertation forced labor and attack by different illnesses, the majority of the native peoples of this country died. Carnival was therefore introduced and spread with a lot of ease from 1785 as the majority of the people had already had encounter of what it entails. Resume La Resaca! Allah we Organization (2011) observes that the country today provides an example of citizenry of the immigrants of every origin coexisting in peace.
The people originated from Africa, India, and your, China, African, Asian, and American. Carnival has since been embraced in part essay, Trinidad and has continued to get sponsorship from many individuals and organizations. There is an increased belief that sponsoring a carnival band is a sure way of making the children understand their roots and culture. In Trinidad’s Kiddies Carnival for a dissertation your, example, the majority of schools and organizations operating within the la resaca, communities have been very collaborative in supporting the organization through participation. This has enabled the communities to work together making it possible for the establishment of stronger friendships while also developing respect for one another’s culture. Allah we Organization (2011) also noted that Carnival festival has also provided the Africans with a special opportunity to express their power and the richness in the cultural traditions. The organization noted that the buying, effect of Carnival arts in uniting people has been felt every where around the world. Studies have further revealed that Carnival offers the world with a dynamic tool which enables people to freely express and explore themselves. Carnival has also been helpful in helping people of different cultures trace their roots.
It gives the b.com 1 english, world a totally different perspective of its cultures while greatly uniting all the people from all the origins by helping them to discovery what they have in common while celebrating their differences. In conclusion, it is clear that the power and creativity that underlines these art forms is able to transform lives and promote peace. However, questions will still be asked over who is owed the credit of the origin of the buying a dissertation, carnival. Though it is held so much by the European countries, it is clear that Carnival is an African expression no matter where it is expressed. This is a tool that the world must embrace to help promote peace across all lines of rob lovich diversity.
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