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How to Write a Cover Letter for Internships. Written by topics Laura Riley. Updated April 10, 2017. Laura Riley is a writer who specializes in career advice and 500 word essay on jackie, professional development. She has a Master’s degree in Student Affairs and Higher Education from Miami University. You’ve heard it before: “No one actually reads a cover letter.” “Cover letters are pointless.” There’s actually proof that writing an dante alighieri essay topics outstanding cover letter can get you an insurance case internship. If you’re thinking, “Hmm I’m really not sold on dante essay topics this whole perfect cover letter thing.” Or maybe you’ve heard that college students don’t really need them.
Hang tight. I’m going to explain exactly what a professional cover letter is, why you need one, and most importantly, I’ll outline a step-by-step process to help you write an outstanding cover letter. And the best part? This article includes multiple, full-length cover letter samples. These samples will help you write a solid cover letter from beginning to end.
One that’s good enough to learning thesis secure your dream internship. Before we jump in, let’s take a look at exactly what’s included in essay topics this article : I’m sure this comes as no surprise: As a college student, you will likely apply for internships (if you haven’t already!) As you may know, students who have internship experience increase their chance of securing a full-time job offer upon graduation. Many interns actually accept offers before they even graduate. According to a study conducted by Vault, 73% of learning student interns said they received or expected to receive a full-time offer from their internship employer . Internships and essay, cooperative education programs (co-ops) give you an opportunity to gain experience in your desired career field prior to graduation. By gaining hands-on, specialized experience, you become more competitive in the job market. Internship experience is important. To secure an internship, you need to thesis submit a quality resumé, cover letter, and at topics, times, additional application requirements. If you submit an study interview outstanding application, you’ll receive an dante alighieri invitation to interview.
And if you hit your interview out of the park, you’ll receive an consider essay internship or job offer. This means that believing the myth that cover letters are irrelevant can be detrimental to your professional success. Your resumé and cover letter are the foundation of topics your success as a job applicant. Your cover letter basically exists to tell a company, “Hey, I really, really, really want this internship.” In a more professional way, of india course. A professional cover letter is an important document to send in with your résumé when applying to a job. It provides additional information about why you are the best candidate for essay the job. After the employer reads your cover letter, you want them to read your resumé, check out your LinkedIn profile, visit your online portfolio, or better yet, do all three. On nearly every social media site, the first thing you do is essay china threat development create a profile, or at minimum, a username. Let’s take Instagram for example. When you land on an Instagram profile for the very first time, you quickly scan the user’s bio and the photos at the top of their feed. If you aren’t immediately engaged by what you see, you probably won’t come back.
Follow for a follow? No thanks. The same thing happens in the job search. Your cover letter acts as your Instagram bio. Your cover letter offers a first impression of who you are as a professional and what you’re all about. It’s your chance to grab a recruiter’s attention. This means your cover letter has to be good! While you unfortunately can’t use emojis to amplify your cover letter, you can still make your cover letter interesting to read. It’s your job to engage the hiring manager, recruiter, or search committee.
In a sense, you want them to topics follow you. You want them to double-tap your activity and leave comments like, “We would love to hire you!” If you’re thinking, “ But that’s not always the case. People don’t always read cover letters .” You’re right. Insurance Case? There are definitely recruiters who don’t read cover letters.
But for every recruiter who doesn’t read your cover letter, there’s a recruiter who bases their entire hiring decision on how good your cover letter is. I recently talked to a hiring manager who was shocked at alighieri essay, the number of 500 word on jackie robinson applicants who didn’t submit a cover letter along with their resumé. She said, “I will NEVER hire an applicant who doesn’t submit a cover letter. It’s not that they’re unqualified, but I can’t put the experience on their resumé into context.” Don’t make that mistake. Particularly if your previous work experience doesn’t say a lot about how you’ll be a great fit for alighieri essay topics the company that you’re applying to. If you truly want an thesis internship, you need a cover letter. Not spending time on dante topics your cover letterbecause you assume it’s not going to be readcan be incredibly costly. And not hearing back from english learning thesis a company after you submit your application gets old really quickly.
So, what’s the purpose of alighieri essay topics a cover letter anyway? The purpose of argumentative pro life a cover letter is 3-fold: Introduce yourself to alighieri essay topics a prospective employer. Argumentative On Abortion Pro Life? Communicate your interest in a specific position and company. Explain how you’re a well-qualified candidate for the internship position.
If done right, your cover letter will serve an actual purpose (beyond checking off an application requirement or turning in a class assignment). Your cover letter can get you an interview. If you’re familiar with how to write a resumé, you know the purpose of a resumé is to communicate your achievements to a potential employer. Unlike a cover letter, a resumé never uses personal pronouns like “I” or “Me”. Alighieri? Instead of 500 word on jackie saying, “I created a social media campaign,” a resumé states, “Created social media campaign”. Because of this traditional formatting, it can be difficult for internship applicants to express their personality.
“I feel like my resumé makes me sound super boring.” Guess who’s here to save the day? The misunderstood cover letter. For some reason, cover letters don’t get the love they deserve. But cover letters are actually pretty cool. Dante Alighieri Essay? They can help you tell your professional story.
Let’s look at an example. Pro Life? Say your resumé includes the following entry: Volunteer, Community Food Pantry. Inspect and sort 100 pounds of food donations per week to dante alighieri essay topics ensure they meet quality and safety standards. While that’s a solid resumé bullet point, it doesn’t tell the promotional entire story of why you chose to volunteer and what your experience with the food pantry taught you. Dante Essay? The bullet point doesn’t discuss how volunteering changed you as a person, or influenced your professional goals, and essays on abortion, most importantly, it doesn’t discuss how volunteering will help you excel at your internship position. If we assume this volunteer experience is relevant to the internship you’re applying for, your cover letter provides a great opportunity to tell this story in more detail.
Here’s a good example of dante alighieri essay topics what you could write in your cover letter: “Through my volunteer work with the Community Food Pantry, I discovered my passion for 500 word robinson nonprofit business. Each week, I collaborate with ten other volunteers to sort food donations. I am dedicated to essay topics ending poverty and hunger and would be thrilled to learning thesis intern with the Hunger Relief Organization.” Being able to tell your story is what makes a cover letter incredibly valuable. This can set you apart as an applicant and most importantly, help you secure your dream internship or job! Before I explain how to format your cover letter , let’s review the three primary goals : Introduce yourself to a prospective employer. Essay? Communicate your interest in a position and info code, company. Explain how you’re a well-qualified candidate for dante essay the position. Let’s look at each goal in more detail. Goal 1: Introduce yourself to a prospective employer.
The first goal is pretty straightforward. In your cover letter, you need to formally introduce yourself to the hiring team. You can accomplish this in 500 word a single, well-crafted sentence. Below are two good examples: Example 1: “As a sophomore majoring in social work at University of Southern California, I am passionate about supporting vulnerable individuals and groups.” At a minimum, you should include your year in school (or when you plan to graduate), along with your degree, major, minor, or area of study. Goal 2: Communicate your interest in a position and company. A second requirement is to communicate your interest in the position and dante essay topics, company. Always tailor your cover letter with the exact position title and the name of the company you’re applying to. English Learning Thesis? Here are two great examples: Example 1: “When I discovered the psychology internship with the alighieri topics Counseling Center on Internships.com, I was excited by the opportunity to gain exposure to the field of psychology alongside experienced psychologists and counselors.”
After you introduce yourself and communicate your interest in the position and essay threat india economic, company, there is alighieri essay topics one additional piece of information you must include. Don’t miss this step: Goal 3: Explain how you’re a well-qualified candidate. This is the study most common mistake students make. You need to connect the dante topics dots for an employer of how your journey and argumentative essays, experiences make you the best candidate for dante alighieri topics the position. Don’t just say, “I’m the best candidate”. Prove it. Explain what makes you well-qualified. Share the coursework info code experiences and courses that have prepared you to be an effective, productive, outstanding professional with their company.
Let’s look at alighieri topics, an example. Say a company is seeking a graphic design intern. In the job description, the company outlines their minimum requirements: an intern who understands how to use Adobe Creative Suite, can effectively collaborate with a dynamic team, and understands basic design and marketing principles. Here’s one way to china threat india economic demonstrate how you’re the right pick for the job: My coursework, campus involvement, and professional experience make me a well-qualified applicant for this position. Coursework . I have completed courses in Graphic Design and Photoimaging. As a result, I am proficient in Adobe Creative Suite.
Campus involvement. For the past two years, I have been a member of the Graphic Design Club. We collaborate to create websites and dante, marketing materials for nonprofit organizations. Professional experience. As an employee with the Office of 500 word on jackie Fraternity and Sorority Affairs, I design marketing materials for on-campus events including Greek Week, along with various philanthropic events.
There you have it! Introduce yourself to a prospective employer, communicate your interest in a position and company, and most importantly, explain why you’re a well-qualified applicant. Now that you understand the core components to any cover letter, let’s explore what makes each type of cover letter unique. What types of cover letters are there? As a college student, you should know about three different types of cover letters: Internship Cover Letters Entry-Level Cover Letters Cover Letters for dante alighieri essay jobs where you do not have any relevant experience. I’ll outline what makes each of these cover letters unique and consider audio, explain exactly how to alighieri essay write a cover letter tailored to an internship and case study interview, an entry-level position. I’ll also show you how to solve the problem of not having “relevant” experience. What makes an internship cover letter unique? By definition, an dante internship is a position in an organization where a student or trainee can gain work experience.
While the organization does not expect you to come in with years of experience, they expect you to come ready to learn. Though you’re undoubtedly contributing to the organization as an intern, internships provide an opportunity for you to learn while gaining hands-on experience in your desired field. So what’s the bottom line? An internship cover letter must explain what you want to essay learn and why you want to learn it. Tell the organization how their specific internship complements your academics. Outline why you’re interested in dante joining the organization. Explain how the insurance case study interview internship will help you develop as a professional and set you up for success upon graduation. But don’t forget, you also need to communicate mutual benefit. Dante Alighieri Essay Topics? While you want to grow as a professional, you need to add value to their team too.
So it’s important that you tell the on abortion company exactly what you can bring to their organization (in addition to what you want to learn). Let’s look at a couple of examples: Example 1: “I am excited by the chance to contribute to alighieri ABC Company and am prepared to engage in continuous learning. Study? I intentionally pursue professional development and value non-stop growth as described by the internship description.” Example 2: “Shadowing case managers and attending mental health meetings seems like an incredibly beneficial experience. I am excited by the chance to contribute to your organization and am prepared to engage in continuous learning.”
Both examples not only dante topics explain what the applicant is excited to learn, but also each applicant mentions how they’re excited to contribute to the organization. Explaining what you want to learn is an essential component to writing a cover letter for an internship or co-op experience. What makes an argumentative essays on abortion pro life entry-level cover letter unique? If you’re in your last year of college, then this section is for you. Dante Topics? You’re preparing to start a full-time job upon insurance case study interview graduation. Congrats! An entry-level cover letter differs slightly from an dante topics internship cover letter. While it’s still important to communicate how the china india economic development position aligns with your professional goals, you need to emphasize why you’re well-qualified for the position. At the beginning of dante essay this article, I outlined how to demonstrate your qualifications.
You need to explain what experiences and courses have prepared you to be an learning thesis effective, productive, outstanding professional with their company. Your cover letter should answer the following questions: Why are you well-prepared for the position? What specific experiences prepared you for the position? How has your academic coursework provided the knowledge to excel in this entry level role? Entry-level positions are undoubtedly competitive. Alighieri Essay? You need to market yourself effectively and communicate your value to an employer.
Convince them to hire you! How do I write a cover letter if I don’t have relevant experience? If you don’t have “relevant” experience, come on down off that ledge. I’ve heard it before: “I can’t get a job without experience, but I can’t get experience without a job.” Yes, you can. Here’s how: Let’s say you want to info promotional apply for a marketing internship.
Below are the dante essay requirements of the internship as outlined by the job description: Sophomore or junior standing Pursuing a Bachelor’s degree in essay threat business, communications, advertising, or related field Strong teamwork, communication, and critical thinking skills. Familiarity with Adobe Creative Suite Experience with SPSS. Pretend you’re currently a sophomore at a large, public university. Because classes fill up quickly, you haven’t taken any major-specific courses. This year you completed Business 101 and Management 105, but you have zero marketing experience.
Beyond classes, you’re an active member of an on-campus organization called Women in Business, but in terms of work experience, you only have a part-time waitressing job on the weekends. You’re still qualified. This is where transferrable skills come in. A transferable skill is a skill that is relevant regardless of the position you are applying for. You take these skills from essay job to job.
Common examples of transferable skills include teamwork, organization, communication, time management, and leadership. Think back to the example above. As a waitress, you collaborate with wait staff, provide customer service to restaurant patrons, and communicate effectively to ensure orders are submitted correctly. Are you thinking: “Okay, but how is that relevant to marketing?” The internship outlined above requires strong teamwork skills. You have those. It’s your job to demonstrate your ability to work in a team. Here’s an example of coursework code what you could write in your cover letter: “As a member of essay Women in Business, a 60-person student-run organization, I collaborate with my peers to plan leadership events and bring speakers to campus. In addition, as a waitress at Good Food Restaurant, I work with a 6-person team to ensure high-quality service and satisfied guests. I enjoy collaborating with colleagues and would appreciate the opportunity to learn alongside your team of argumentative experienced marketing professionals.”
You have the skills. Dante Alighieri? You just have to prove it. Even if you don’t have hours of specialized work experience in your field of study, you have more transferable skills than you realize. Give yourself some credit. At this point, we’ve already covered quite a bit. You understand what a cover letter is, what purpose it serves, and why you need one as a college student. You know three types of cover letters and what makes each type unique. You also understand how to leverage transferable skills when you don’t have “relevant” experience. Let’s get to the actual writing. How should you format your cover letter?
Whichever type of cover letter is most appropriate for youinternship, entry level, or no relevant experiencethe fundamentals remain the same. India? While you want to dante stand out and be creative, there are a few specifications you need to abide by. In this section I’ll discuss the following: length, margins, font size, font style, color, quantity of paragraphs, and china india economic development, bullet point usage. (We've gone into even more detail about the different cover letter formats in our Cover Letter Format Guide for Internships article) Length: As I’ve mentioned, a cover letter gives you a chance to tell your story. Essay Topics? But slow down. You aren’t writing a novel. A cover letter should never be longer than one, single-spaced page. Argumentative Pro Life? In terms of word count, your letter will typically be only essay 200-400 words.
Margins : It’s best to use standard 1-inch margins, but you may use margins as small as .5 inches. Essay China Threat Development? Whatever you choose, be sure the margin size is consistent on all sides. Font : When choosing a font, make sure it’s easy to read. Some appropriate fonts include Arial, Calibri, Garamond, Georgia, Tahoma, or Times New Roman. Stay away from dante alighieri fancy curls and fonts that only belong on horror movie posters. The Lobster? As a way to brand yourself, you may choose a different font for your name in alighieri essay topics the header of your cover letter. Other than this exception, be sure to use the thesis same font throughout for consistency’s sake. Font Size: Use size 10- to dante essay topics 12-point font.
This will ensure the font is large enough to read, but small enough to create a professional and polished look. Color : Unless you’re a graphic design major or a creative professional, you’ll typically use black font. If you’re applying to a creative industry, a tasteful splash of color may be appropriate (recommendations are covered at the end of this article in essay more detail). Dante Alighieri? If you’re printing your cover letter to mail or use at consider essay audio, a career fair, use black ink on white, cream, or ivory paper. Left align each paragraph. There is no need to indent the first sentence of each paragraph. Dante? Instead “Return/Enter” between each paragraph.
This will create a balance of text and whitespace, making your cover letter easier to english thesis read. Bullet Points: Some resumés use a lot of bullet points to alighieri outline someone’s accomplishments, but can bullet points be used on a cover letter? Sparingly. Consider Essay Audio? Use bullet points to dante alighieri essay briefly summarize information where appropriate. For example, you may write something like this: My academic background, communication skills, and leadership experience have prepared me well for this computer science internship.
Academic background. I have completed courses in computer science, statistics, and systems programming resulting in a 3.9 Major GPA. Pro Life? Communication skills. As the professional development chair of University of Southern California’s Computer Science student organization, I develop and facilitate computer science presentations. Leadership experience. Dante Alighieri Essay Topics? This year, my classmates elected me as the sophomore representative for the college student government assembly. Bullet points can be an effective way to on abortion pro life communicate multiple qualifications, while abiding by the one-page length requirement.
Those are the basic style guidelines when it comes to creating a cover letter. Alighieri Essay? Now let’s check out the key sections of a letter. What are the key sections of your cover letter? The following are essential cover letter sections: header, date, greeting, company address, and salutation. I’ll define each section and english, discuss exactly what to alighieri essay topics include. China Threat India? I’ll also share detailed examples of what to write. Header : A cover letter header is the information at the top of your cover letter. It includes your name and contact information, the alighieri essay date you’re applying, and the company’s mailing address. In the header, it’s important to case study include your full name. If you’re in dante alighieri essay topics the process of changing your name, plan to coursework promotional change your name during the recruitment process, or recently changed your name, it may be appropriate to include your new name with your former name in parentheses.
If your name is “Elizabeth” and you go by “Beth,” then it’s entirely acceptable to use Beth on your documents. If your legal name is “Wayne” and you prefer to go by “Thomas,” then you may write it as “Thomas (Wayne) Johnson” to avoid any confusion. When it comes to contact information, you should include your email address and a phone number where the company can reach you with follow-up questions, or to schedule an interview. You may also choose to dante essay topics include a URL link to your LinkedIn profile or an online portfolio showcasing your work. Here’s the essays on abortion pro life most important part: You must use a professional email address.
Your school email address is a good option. If you prefer to dante alighieri use a personal email, make sure it’s professional. While you want to stand out, a creative email address like alliecat@ or iwantajob@ isn’t the way to do it. Create a generic johnsmith1@ account, or use the .edu email address provided by your university. Unprofessional email addresses get resumés rejected more than 75% of the consider audio time. Date : After you include your name and contact information, you need to include the date you’re applying for the position.
Right-align the date in the space below below your name and contact information. Company Address: While you probably won’t snail mail your cover letter, as a professional document, tradition tells us to include the dante essay company mailing address. Although you’re not typically submitting a hard copy of your resumé, after sending off your application, it’s in coursework info code the possession of human resources. You don’t know if it will be printed, mailed, sent to dante alighieri another department for review, or any combination of case study interview these scenarios. Determine the company name, mailing address, and essay topics, department (if applicable). Left-align this information after the date. Greeting : The most appropriate option for a greeting is ‘Dear’. It’s also advantageous to refer to essay china threat the hiring manager by their name in your salutation.
For example, “Dear Ms. Mary Johnson,”. When writing the topics salutation, ensure the name and title are correct. For example, a person with the argumentative essays on abortion pro life name ‘Taylor’, may prefer the title Mr., Ms., Mrs., or none of the above. Alighieri Essay Topics? Make sure you use the insurance case study correct title before their surname.
If you don’t know what to use, opt for their first and last name only. Salutation: Don’t use “To Whom It May Concern”, or “Dear Sir/Madam”. Do your homework and dante alighieri essay topics, figure out the “Whom” actually entails. If you’re lucky, a company will list a contact person near the insurance study interview bottom of the topics job description. Use this contact name in your cover letter.
If the china threat company does not specify who the hiring manager or recruiter is, still do not resort to, “To Whom It May Concern”. In this case, here’s what you should do: After thoroughly reviewing the dante alighieri topics job description, work up the courage to call human resources. HR is your friend, so there’s no need to be anxious. Here’s what you could say: “Hi, I’m preparing an application for your open internship position #12345.
I’m wondering who the hiring manager is for this position.” Oftentimes, human resources will provide you with the study information. Other times, they may say, “Just address it to HR.” In this case, I recommend using “Dear Hiring Manager and Search Committee” as your salutation. Now that we’ve covered the dante alighieri basic formatting rules and the core sections of a cover letter, let’s talk about an incredibly important rule for every cover letter you write. Don’t forget this: You must tailor your cover letter to every single position and essays, unique company you apply to. What does it mean to dante tailor a cover letter? Tailoring a cover letter is exactly what it sounds like. A tailor, or a person who alters clothing, adjusts clothing to fit unique, individual people.
A shirt tailored for Person A will not fit Person B as well as it fits Person A. You should take the same approach when writing a cover letter. It’s kind of like giving a birthday gift. While you could safely give any person a gift of the lobster cash, it can come off as impersonal (like you forgot it was even their birthday). Why? Because it’s a generic gift. Just as you would avoid giving a generic gift to your best friend. You should avoid giving a generic cover letter to dante alighieri essay your dream employer. In short, you should never submit the exact same cover letter to more than one position or company. Tailoring a cover letter requires additional effort on your behalf.
You need to conduct company research and consider essay, understand the position inside and out. You’ll use this information to create a unique cover letter that is essay topics appropriate for a specific job and a unique company. If you’re thinking, “How would one company know if I send them the same exact cover letter I sent another company?” Truth be told, they probably won’t find out. But that’s not the point. If your cover letter is learning thesis so generic that you can submit it to multiple positions at different companies, it’s not unique enough. The recruiter will immediately recognize your cover letter as a generic template, and it will end up in the trash can.
Let’s go back to essay topics the birthday gift analogy. When you purchase a birthday gift for your best friend, you most likely base your decision on a few things: What are they interested in? What do they enjoy? What do they need? What do they want?
You then use what you know about your friend to inform your decision of what to essay robinson buy. It’s the same when it comes to writing a cover letter. You must conduct company research to answer similar questions: What type of candidate is the company interested in? What does the dante alighieri topics company value and enjoy? What needs and pain points does the company need to solve? What does the company want from china india you as an essay topics applicant? To be successful, you must integrate the coursework code answers to topics these questions into your cover letter. While some of the content in each letter will undoubtedly overlap, do your best to create unique content for argumentative essays on abortion each position. While the term ‘research’ can be intimidating, I have good news: You don’t have to be a scientist to dante alighieri do good research.
To conduct company research, there are a few key resources: Explore the company website. Promotional? Google the dante alighieri essay topics company to english thesis discover current events. Visit websites such as Glassdoor.com, where candidates, current employees, and dante essay, former employees rate companies. Some examples of what you may research are the company mission, vision, or recent news. You’re looking for information that is relevant to the position and details that make you excited about the company. At this point, you understand what a cover letter is and what it means to tailor your cover letter.
This cover letter template is not tailored to any specific company or position. Essay China? This is a bad, scratch that, TERRIBLE cover letter: To Whom It May Concern, I am writing to apply for an internship I recently found on your website. I believe I am the best candidate for this position based on topics my academic coursework and my relevant experience. I match exactly what you are looking for coursework promotional code in a candidate. As a college student, I understand how to use Microsoft Word and Excel. I am passionate, detail oriented, and hard-working.
I am really excited about the opportunity to join your company. Alighieri Essay? Attached you will find my resumé which explains my experience in further detail. Thank you for your time. I look forward to the possibility of interviewing. It may be more appropriate to audio end that letter with, “I am sincerely boring,” but you get the point. In brief, this is what is wrong with the above example: X No header (i.e. applicant name, contact information, date, company address) X Generic and outdated salutation (i.e. “To Whom It May Concern”)
X Cliché and boring introduction. X No mention of the internship title. X No mention of the company name. X No proof as to why the applicant is the “best candidate” X Applicant includes generic skills (i.e. Microsoft Office and Excel) Don’t write a cover letter like this. You will put the recruiter to sleep. Minneapolis, MN 12345. Fashion and Design. New York City, NY 56789.
Dear Ms. Debra Glod, When I discovered the fashion internship with XYZ Company on Internships.com, I was excited by essay the opportunity to complement my coursework with experience in a fast-paced environment. As a junior majoring in Fashion Merchandising at University of Southern California, I am passionate about creating original concepts and executing designs. My leadership experience, design coursework, and creative portfolio make me a well-qualified applicant for english learning thesis this position. Leadership experience. As the President of the essay topics on-campus student organization, Fashion and Business, I produce an annual fashion show with over argumentative, 30 models and dante essay, 250 attendees. Design coursework. I have a 3.9 Major GPA after taking introduction to textiles, fashion sketching, computer-aided fashion design, and coursework info, advanced apparel development. Essay? Creative portfolio.
My portfolio includes original sketches and drawings created in case Adobe Illustrator. It can be viewed by visiting firstname.lastname@example.org. As described by the internship description, I am eager to grow into a bold and interactive designer. Alighieri? I believe your organization provides a rewarding opportunity to engage in continuous learning. My enclosed resumé expands on my leadership experience and academic coursework.
As I prepare for a career in fashion, I am dedicated to understanding the field by collaborating with an experienced design and production team. Thank you for your time and consideration. I look forward to hearing from you soon. In brief, this is a great example because it includes the essay threat following: ? Name, contact information, date, and company address. ? Tailored salutation including the hiring manager’s first and last name. ? Unique introduction that communicates the applicant’s interest and passion in the position, company, and industry. ? Specific internship title “Fashion Internship” ? Company name, “XYZ Company” ? Use of the dante essay term “well-qualified applicant” vs. Essays Pro Life? “best candidate” ? Unique skills that are relevant to the position (i.e. Essay? leadership, design, and consider essay audio, creative work) ? Description of the applicant’s desire to grow as a professional. Use this as a model when crafting your letter.
What to dante essay topics include in your actual cover letter? Now I’m going to walk you through a 4-step process for writing a cover letter. Argumentative Essays Pro Life? This process helps you narrow down your experience and alighieri essay, determine what is most relevant to on abortion the position and company. You only dante alighieri essay topics have one page to communicate how you match exactly what the employer is consider the lobster looking for in a candidate. Let’s use a 4-step process to accomplish this task. Step 1: Highlight the alighieri essay job description. Step 2: Select three job responsibilities you want to focus on in your cover letter. Step 3: Identify three of your accomplishments that are relevant to those responsibilities. Step 4: Connect your accomplishments to the qualifications the employer seeks.
I’ll take you through each step and describe exactly what to do. This is an effective way to write a cover letter. Let’s jump in! Step 1: Highlight the job description. You may be asking, “What’s the point of this?”. As you already know, the purpose of a cover letter is to consider essay audio get a potential employer to read your resumé. You do this by demonstrating how you match exactly what they’re looking for.
Well, what are they looking for? The answer to this question is in the job description. The purpose of this step is to determine the dante alighieri essay most important requirements. To highlight the job description, either print a hard copy and grab an actual highlighter, or copy and paste the contents of the insurance job description into your favorite word processing program. You should make note of the following: Core responsibilities Required qualifications Preferred qualifications Keywords Patterns and themes.
A job description will typically label the dante essay topics core responsibilities, required qualifications, and preferred qualifications. Study? Those should be easy to determine. That being said, there won’t be a section labeled “Keywords” or “Themes.” This is where you have to dante alighieri essay do a little work. It’s your job to read through the job description and 500 word on jackie robinson, determine what is most important to dante alighieri essay topics the employer. Ask yourself the following questions: What words are repeated throughout the job description?
What responsibilities are emphasized in the job description? Let’s look at the following example of a job description for english thesis a marketing internship. The example outlines responsibilities, minimum qualifications, and preferred characteristics. Carefully read through each section. Marketing Internship Job Description. Conduct social media marketing campaigns Collect quantitative and qualitative data Perform market analysis and research on competitors Collaborate with co-interns and marketing team to analyze data Support marketing team in daily administrative tasks Present findings to marketing team. Sophomore or junior standing Pursuing a bachelor’s degree Interested in marketing and/or business-related career Effective writing and verbal communication skills. Pursuing a degree in dante marketing, business, graphic design, communications, or a related area of study.
When you review this job description, a few things should be obvious. You know the employer is robinson looking for an intern who is interested in social media marketing and alighieri essay topics, data analysis. After further review, you can also make an insurance study interview additional conclusion: Conclusion : The company seeks an intern who is an effective communicator. Clues : The job description not only requires someone with “effective writing and verbal communication skills”, but the intern must also be able to collaborate with colleagues and present findings to the marketing team.
Both of dante alighieri topics these responsibilities require a heightened level of communication. That’s a pattern or theme. After reviewing the job description in detail, you observe a common thread, pattern, or theme regarding one skill across multiple bullet points. Use this knowledge to your advantage. Dedicate several sentences in your cover letter to proving how you’re an effective communicator. For example, you may write: “After reviewing the job description, it is clear that XYZ Company values effective communication. If hired as the Marketing Intern, I would leverage my experience in Toastmasters International, a non-profit organization dedicated to 500 word essay on jackie helping members develop public speaking and leadership skills. I have a proven ability to topics communicate messages effectively and would apply this ability as a Marketing Intern.” Let’s say you highlight the job description and determine there are ten core responsibilities and qualifications the employer wants.
Do you write about all ten? Probably not. Coursework Info Promotional? If you remember correctly, a cover letter can only be one page long. Topics? You cannot adequately cover ten different requirements in a single page. So how do you determine which skills to focus on? This is where step two comes in. Step 2: Select which job responsibilities you want to focus on.
After you review the job description in detail and essay, highlight the most important parts, you need to choose which of the many responsibilities you want to focus on in your cover letter. Unless the job description is very shortand the company only highlights three requirementsit’s unlikely you will be able to alighieri essay topics discuss every single requirement in your cover letter. Here’s what you do: Determine what the company values the english thesis most . What does the company emphasize in alighieri the job description? Take into study consideration your own experience and qualifications.
If the job requires communication, teamwork, accounting, and customer service, and you’re not confident in essay topics your accounting skills, then you don’t need to focus on that requirement in your cover letter. At the same time, if accounting skills are listed as a minimum required qualification, then you’re not qualified for the internship. Take time to narrow down not only china threat what is topics most important from the company’s perspective, but also what you are most qualified for. To simplify the writing process, I recommend choosing three job responsibilities to focus on. Coursework? Once you do this, you’re ready for step three. Step 3: Identify specific accomplishments that are relevant to those responsibilities.
After you’ve identified three job responsibilitiesas outlined in the job descriptionyou now need to identify specific accomplishments that are relevant to those responsibilities. You should only highlight the most relevant accomplishments. Not necessarily the dante topics most exciting achievement, but instead, the accomplishments and activities that are closely related to what you would actually be doing with the company. After choosing three requirements and three accomplishments, you’re ready for argumentative essays on abortion step four. Step 4: Connect your accomplishments to the qualifications they seek. In a sense, you need to put together the pieces of the puzzle. You need to demonstrate how your skills and dante alighieri, accomplishments match what the argumentative on abortion pro life company is looking for.
You have three responsibilities and three accomplishments. Topics? Connect the dots. We’ll look at additional examples of essay india economic development how to do this in the next section. How do I write the introduction, body, and dante topics, closing? As with any good story, the cover letter has a beginning, middle, and end. I will refer to these as the coursework introduction, body, and closing. Let’s look at each section in further detail. Alighieri Essay? I’ll describe how to write each section and show you real samples of what you could write. Th intrduction two a covr leter is crushal. If you want your cover letter to end up in on abortion the trash in record-breaking time, make an ugly spelling error in your first sentence. Hiring managers quickly disqualify candidates from consideration because of dante alighieri essay topics spelling errors.
The core components of your introduction include the following: 1) Briefly introduce why you’re writing. 2) Give a short overview of who you are. 3) Tailor the introduction to the company and info, position. If you want to immediately bore a recruiter, open your letter with, “I am writing to apply for”. As one of the most common introductions, that’s not an effective way to stand out from the other applicants. Even if you spend significant time tailoring the rest of your cover letter, a recruiter may assume you submitted a template because the phrase is so overused. It’s cookie cutter and unfortunately, we’re not making cookies.
Avoid this phrase and replace it with something more creative. Begin your cover letter with a sentence that communicates your personality, while still remaining professional. You can accomplish this by starting with a personal anecdote. Alighieri? For example, you could write: “When I was a teaching assistant at my local middle school, I discovered my passion for india economic working with kids. Alighieri Topics? I am committed to” Don’t feel confined by coursework promotional code what is considered standard or traditional.
As long as your content is professional, you can be a little creative. This is your opportunity to infuse your personality. Think of it this way: If you were reading a cover letter, what would engage you? As you explore samples, make note of the dante topics cover letters that seem boring and english, those that inspire you to keep reading. After you engage the dante topics reader, it is important to study demonstrate two things: You did your research. You tailored the topics letter to the specific company and position. Here are a few great examples: “When I discovered the environmental science internship on Internships.com, I was immediately excited by the opportunity to essay china economic join a sustainable organization like XYZ Company.” This opening sentence indicates your interest, why you’re writing, and demonstrates that you researched the company. By including the single word “sustainable,” the essay topics company will know that you did your research, provided they’re truly a sustainable company.
It may be tempting to say, “I believe I am the best candidate for thesis the position.” This is an empty claim. Instead, use the remainder of the letter to alighieri essay prove that you are well-qualified for the position. Those are the argumentative on abortion building blocks of a quality introduction. One succinct, yet engaging paragraph where you do the following: State why you are writing. Provide a brief overview of who you are. Alighieri Topics? Tailor to company and position. Give a brief overview of promotional code what you’re about to discuss in the body.
If done well, the introduction will invite the recruiter to continue reading. Let’s talk about what you include in the body. How do I write the body of a cover letter? After you grab the recruiter’s attention with an engaging introduction, it’s time to dante topics craft a compelling body. The purpose of the body is to prove your qualifications to the reader. It’s important to essays on abortion be specific about your qualifications and clearly describe how they relate to dante topics the position.
This is where you need to match the requirements outlined in the job description with your most relevant skills and qualifications. Let’s look at learning, two different examples. Here’s an dante alighieri topics example using bullet points: My academic coursework, communication skills, and essay china india development, leadership experience have prepared me well for dante alighieri essay this position. Academic coursework.
I have completed courses in business communications, marketing, and strategic human resource management, resulting in a 3.8 GPA. Communication skills. As the professional development chair of University of Southern California’s SHRM Chapter, I develop and facilitate presentations on behalf of the organization. Leadership experience. This year, my classmates elected me as the junior representative for the college student government assembly. I am excited by the chance to contribute to your organization and threat india development, am prepared to engage in continuous learning. I intentionally pursue professional development and value non-stop growth as described by the internship description. Here’s a traditional example (without bullet points): As outlined in the job description, it is clear you seek an intern who is familiar with human resources. Over the dante alighieri essay topics past two years, I have completed courses in argumentative essays business communications, marketing, and strategic human resource management, resulting in a 3.8 Major GPA.
I would leverage this understanding to advance the Human Resources division with your company. Additionally, as the professional development chair of University of Southern California’s SHRM Chapter, I develop and facilitate presentations on behalf of the organization. Alighieri Essay Topics? I have a proven ability to communicate effectively in writing and in person. I am well prepared to present information on behalf of human resources and would enjoy learning alongside your skilled team of representatives. I am excited by the chance to contribute to argumentative essays on abortion pro life your organization and am prepared to engage in continuous learning. The most important part of the body is demonstrating how you match the requirements outlined in the job description . If you can do that, you will set yourself up for success. How do I write the conclusion of dante alighieri topics a cover letter? Finally, like any good letter or story, you need a well-crafted conclusion. In the closing section, you should do a few things: Summarize why you are qualified for the position.
Express your appreciation for their time and consideration. Here’s a solid example of how to wrap up a cover letter: My enclosed resumé expands on coursework info my academic coursework, communication skills, and leadership experience. As I prepare for a career in human resources, I am eager to gain a more detailed understanding of the dante essay topics field. Thank you for your time and argumentative essays on abortion pro life, consideration. I look forward to hearing from you soon. That’s it.
An introduction, body, and conclusion tailored to dante alighieri topics the company and position. Prove that you can do the job and insurance case interview, you’re incredibly excited by the opportunity. We’ve covered a lot so far. By this point, you understand what a cover letter is, the purpose, why you need one, and a step-by-step process for dante essay topics writing an outstanding letter tailored to a unique position and company. Now let’s check out the top 10 tips for crafting your cover letter. Top 10 cover letter tips and hacks.
Be a person. If you think back to earlier in this article, you’ll remember a common resumé concern is: “I feel like my resumé makes me super boring.” The same can happen with your cover letter. I highly recommend infusing your personality. In addition to promotional highlighting your skills and campus involvement, your cover letter should express your individual personality. Dante? You’re a human after all. Make sure your cover letter expresses who you are. Address the right person.
I shared tips for finding the learning thesis correct person to address your cover letter to. Essay Topics? Make sure you not only find the argumentative essays correct person, but adjust the salutation for each letter you write. It can be an alighieri essay awful mistake to tailor your entire cover letter and case interview, forget to look up the correct contact person. Worse yet, you leave the contact person from the last company you applied to on your letter to a new company. Make sure you address the correct person and spell their name correctly. Engage the reader at the beginning. Just like a good book, the first sentence of your cover letter needs to draw the reader in. Avoid cliché phrases like, “I am writing to apply for your internship.” Or, “I’m writing in response to your recently advertised position.” Instead, write something unique, yet professional. Share your passion. If you have a connection with the company, don’t be afraid to alighieri essay topics name drop.
Name dropping is when you include the thesis name of a friend, family member, or acquaintance who is connected to the company. If done correctly, this may improve your credibility and your chances of securing the alighieri internship or full-time position. Coursework Info Promotional Code? For example, you may write: “After speaking with the dante alighieri essay current principal, Kathy Johnson, at coursework code, your meet-and-greet event, I am incredibly excited to apply for the summer school teaching position with Unicorn Unified School District.” Name dropping can showcase your professional network, while signifying an extra level of effort. Focus on the most relevant examples. Do not include a comprehensive list of your college involvement. Your cover letter should not look like you turned the dante alighieri essay contents of your resumé into complete sentences and paragraphs. Instead, choose a few relevant examples and argumentative essays, tell a story. Be specific.
Don’t write, “I conducted in-depth marketing research”. Instead write, “I used SPSS to analyze survey data.” Using generic claims and buzzwords does not add value to your cover letter. Tell the hiring manager exactly what you did and why it matters to their company. Showcase the alighieri topics results of your work. Let’s extend the previous example, “I used SPSS to analyze survey data.” Why did you do that? What was the result of your work? And most importantly, why does it matter to the employer? To strengthen that sentence, you could write, “I used SPSS to analyze survey data and better understand the 500 word on jackie robinson target audience. Dante Essay? This experience will be incredibly beneficial as a Marketing Intern with ABC Company. Include key ideas as outlined in the job description.
Earlier in the article, I told you how to determine keywords and patterns by reviewing the english job description. Here’s a trick for finding keywords. Use the ‘Find’ function. The ‘Findrsquo function is a keyboard function where you press and hold Control+F (Windows), or Command+F (Mac). After you release the buttons, a search box will appear on your screen. Type in likely keywords such as “communication” or ldquo;communicate”. Your computer will highlight every appearance of this word. Determining where the word is used will help you tailor your cover letter.
Keep it brief. Alighieri Essay Topics? No cover letter should be longer than one page. By focusing on the most relevant skills and not reiterating your entire resumé, you’ll be well on promotional code your way to writing a succinct cover letter. At the alighieri essay same time, you need to coursework promotional code find a happy medium. Your letter should not be several sentences. Create 3-5 well-written, concise, yet detailed paragraphs. Follow the employer’s instructions. Alighieri Essay Topics? The employer’s instructions outweigh any recommendation you find online (or in this article). If the employer asks you to english answer a specific question, or share your availability in the cover letter, follow their instructions. There are a few exceptions to dante alighieri essay this rule.
It is against the law for an employer to ask you for the following information: What country are you from? Is English your first language? Do you drink socially? Are you married? Have you ever been arrested? What religious holidays do you observe? Do you have children?
If an employer requests this information (or any other information you feel uncomfortable sharing), you do not need to include that information in your application. It may be a red flag and you probably do not want to english learning thesis work for that company. Those are the top 10 cover letter tips and alighieri, tricks! Be sure to check out our seperate article regarding cover letter tips and tricks. Next let’s check out some common cover letter pitfalls and info code, how to alighieri essay topics avoid them. Top 10 cover letter mistakes to avoid. Typos. I can’t say this too many times.
Ensure that your cover letter is china free of typos. Review the letter yourself, read the letter out loud, and have a friend check it over. You will kill your chances of being interviewed if you make one too many mistakes. Focusing too much on yourself. A cover letter is your chance to explain why you’re qualified and passionate about the job opportunity, but it is not ALL about you. The key to a great cover letter is dante alighieri essay topics explaining how you can solve a problem for essay china india economic development the employer. You need to explain why you’re interested in alighieri the company. Be careful not to focus on yourself too much.
Not tailoring your letter to the company or position. English Learning? Generic phrases such as “Dear employer” or “I would love to work for your company” can create an altogether weak cover letter. Dante Topics? Take my advice and tailor your cover letter to the specific position and argumentative essays on abortion pro life, company. Dissect the dante job description and conduct company research. India? You will quickly stand out as a quality applicant if you can prove your interest in the position and organization. Including taboo topics. Sometimes it can be difficult to know what’s allowable and alighieri essay, what is taboo. While you want to add personality to your cover letter, you must avoid writing about things that are uncomfortable or irrelevant to the position. Do not include information that is insurance case study considered protected class such as your religion or race.
Unless these are integral to the positionfor example, you’re applying to essay topics be a choir director at thesis, a churchthese are unnecessary additions. Being cliché. Dante? I get it. It can be tempting to Google, “cover letter sample” and use a ready-made template found on the internet. 500 Word On Jackie Robinson? While this may seem like the easy option, it will hurt your chances of securing an internship or full-time job.
Recruiters review resumés every day. They can immediately spot a template cover letter. If you found the cover letter example online, so can they. Essay? Take time to case study interview write a unique cover letter that expresses your personality and communicates your qualifications. Rewriting your resumé. A cover letter is dante essay topics not a resumé. It serves an insurance interview entirely different purpose.
Don’t waste cover letter space by simply reiterating what is on your resumé. Include a story, integrate your personality, talk about the company, and discuss your passion. Over-explaining. Don’t be a rambler. Take time to cut out unnecessary words and dante alighieri, phrases. Refrain from repeating the same skill multiple times with different examples. If you want to essays on abortion discuss how you’re an excellent public speaker, share one example. Remember, you submit a cover letter and resumé in hopes of securing an interview. If you receive an invitation to interview, you’ll have the opportunity to dante essay topics describe your experiences in further detail. Being too pushy. If you search the web for cover letter samples, you’ll inevitably come across samples that say something like, I will call your office in study interview a week to schedule an interview.
While you want to dante alighieri essay present yourself as an assertive and confident professional, that approach is typically too pushy and can hurt your chances of getting an interview. An alternative is to say, I welcome the coursework opportunity to speak with you about how I can contribute. Topics? Or “I look forward to on jackie hearing from you soon.” You can communicate your sincere interest without being pushy. Starting with your name. While your name is an dante alighieri essay important piece of information to argumentative pro life include on your cover letter, opening a letter with “My name is Casey Smith” takes away prime real estate. Instead, start with a relevant skill or qualification to grab their attention.
Unless you’re a celebrity and everybody knows your name, it’s not the best option. Sharing irrelevant information. Dante Essay Topics? I get it! You care about ALL the experiences you have gained. Learning Thesis? This attachment can make it incredibly difficult to let things go. But letting go of irrelevant information is key to writing an alighieri outstanding cover letter. Yes, it’s awesome that you volunteer with ten different organizations, but not all ten volunteer experiences are relevant to every internship or job you apply for. You need to china development narrow down your accomplishments and delete what is irrelevant. This will not only dante alighieri essay cut down on the fluff, it will highlight what’s truly important. There you have it.
Essential tips and mistakes to avoid. Before we wrap up, I want to discuss two nontraditional cover letters and share a helpful sample. What do nontraditional cover letters look like? By now, you understand how to make your cover letter unique and why it’s important to infuse your personality. There are a few industries and 500 word on jackie, positions that call for an extra level of creativity and design. If you’re pursuing a creative degree, this is for you. Graphic Design Cover Letter . If you’re a graphic design major, or another creative type, it’s advantageous to reflect this in your cover letter. But don’t forget the basics. Dante? Before you attack the design, ensure the spelling, grammar, and sentence structure is solid. Then, take a few liberties with your design. 500 Word Essay On Jackie Robinson? Adjust the topics layout, choose the perfect typography, and add a splash of color.
While you don’t want to essay development go overboard, you should use your letter as an opportunity to alighieri demonstrate your skills. As a creative major, you should also include a link to your online portfolio. The hiring team will review your portfolio for design basicsfrom color choice to typography, white space usage to contrast. While this is an awesome opportunity to showcase your work, it requires a heightened attention to detail. Check for spelling and grammar throughout. Video Cover Letter. Promotional Code? A video cover letter can be a unique way to showcase your skills. Some IT companies and tech-based startups are opting for video cover letters in dante alighieri essay place of consider essay traditional letters.
Just like a traditional letter, you want the content to engage the viewer and encourage them to check out dante alighieri essay your resumé and portfolio. You’re essentially creating a movie trailer. Where a traditional cover letter is bound to one page, a video cover letter rarely exceeds 60 seconds in length. Brevity is still important. Keep in mind the purpose of a cover letter and craft your content around these three primary goals: Introduce yourself to a prospective employer. Communicate your interest in a position and company. Explain how you’re a well-qualified candidate for the position. What’s key here is that your personality and energy come through. Unless you’re camera-shy, there’s no need to argumentative essays on abortion pro life write an entire script.
Choose a few bullet points to focus on and discuss your qualifications. Dante? You want to come across as genuine as you can, without trying too hard! 456 Business Road. Phoenix, AZ 85001. Ms. Nichole Favret. 123 Business Street. Phoenix, AZ 85001. Dear Ms. Nichole Favret,
When I discovered the accounting internship with XYZ Company on Internships.com, I was excited by insurance case the opportunity to dante essay complement my coursework with practical experience. As a junior majoring in Accounting at consider, University of Southern California, I am enjoy compiling reports and completing audits. My academic background, communication skills, and leadership experience have prepared me well for this position. Academic coursework . Essay Topics? I have completed courses in intermediate accounting, cost accounting, business law, and individual income tax, resulting in on abortion pro life a 3.9 Major GPA. Communication skills . As the professional development chair of University of alighieri topics Southern California’s Accounting Club, I develop and facilitate presentations on behalf of the organization. Leadership experience . The Lobster Essay Audio? As a chapter leader of Delta Sigma Pi, a business fraternity on dante essay topics campus, I recruit new members and discuss the study interview value of the alighieri topics organization. I am excited by the chance to threat contribute to your organization and dante alighieri essay, am prepared to insurance case study engage in continuous learning. I intentionally pursue professional development and value non-stop growth as described by the internship description. My enclosed resumé expands on my academic coursework, communication skills, and leadership experience.
As I prepare for an accounting career, I am eager to gain a more detailed understanding of the field. Thank you for your time and consideration. Dante Alighieri Topics? I look forward to hearing from you soon. That’s what a solid cover letter looks like from beginning to end. Check out case interview more professional cover letter examples here. People read cover letters. As you now know, an outstanding cover letter can get you an alighieri essay internship.
You have every tool, example, and piece of advice necessary to write a superior cover letter. You understand exactly what a cover letter is, why you need one, and most importantly, you have a step-by-step process to help you write an outstanding cover letter. Whether you’re applying for a summer internship, or submitting your first application to promotional a full-time position, you’re well prepared. Congratulations on getting this far. Set aside time to write an outstanding letter.
It will be easier than you think and more rewarding than you imagine.
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Category Archives: Pointless Essays. Thoreau’s Cosmopolitical Proposal. Henry David Thoreau casts a long shadow over my thoughts about and practice of walking, particularly his essay “On Walking” which opens with “I wish to speak a word for Nature, for absolute freedom and wildness, as contrasted with a freedom and culture merely civil,–to regard man as an inhabitant, or a part and parcel of nature, rather than a member of society.” In a stroke, he introduces what becomes an elemental concept–the wild–and frames his understanding of the human away from society in the big outside actively participating in the making of that outside. But his initial phrasing also opens the question of who is authorized to speak for another, particularly an other without language. Although the essay is full of essay many strongly (if ironically) stated sentiments about who is qualified to walk–“If you are ready to leave father and essay on jackie mother, and brother and sister, and wife and child and friends, and never see them again,–if you have paid your debts, and made your will, and settle all of dante your affairs, and are a free man, then you are ready for a walk.”–speaking a word for nature is, from the first instant, made in a tentative voice. He might speak a word for Nature, but he cannot speak for Nature. “On Walking” is an essay on being “part and parcel of nature,” of acknowledging its “subtle magnetism,” and the “capabilities of the landscape.” The Nature he speaks for is full of agencies known and unknown.
The Belgian philosopher Isabelle Stengers also wants to question those who speak “a word” for Nature, to understand what authorizes certain people (usually scientists) to 500 word essay robinson speak for nature, and to what extent their words are final. Alighieri Essay? Her “Cosmopolitical Proposal” advocates listening to multiple voices speaking for coursework promotional code, or with multiple constituencies, articulating alliances, and arriving at an often brief consensus. She opens with a question–“How can I present a proposal intended not to say what is, or what ought to be, but to dante alighieri topics provoke thought; one that requires no other verification than the essays pro life way in which it is able to dante alighieri essay topics ‘slow down’ reasoning and create an opportunity to arouse a slightly different awareness of the problems and 500 word essay situations mobilizing us?” Her friend and mentor Gilles Deleuze once characterized Nietzsche’s philosophy as a “series of darts” –provocations to thinking– rather than a system or method. Alfred North Whitehead, Stenger’s other, more distant mentor, spoke of philosophy as “lures for thinking.” All three–Whitehead, Deleuze, Stengers–offer up concepts, a tool-box, to help do philosophical work. They give no absolute position from which to speak absolutely, but they do point out a branching path where thinkers can, in Thoreau’s word, saunter. The beginning of “On Walking” is a critique of an overly sedentary existence promoted by the business economy, but it is also a description (sometimes prescription) of proper walking attitudes. In the latter part he echoes his mentor Emerson’s plea in the “Divinity School Address” for a unique American literature and philosophy, one partaking of and maybe even articulating the topics wild land they now occupy. This notion of “the wild” is a fraught concept, one subject to many different appropriations, most notably to support eco-political movements advocating for setting aside wilderness areas. His line “in wildness is the preservation of the world” is often misquoted as “in wilderness…” Without doubt, one could find elements of a Thoreavian wild in a vast wilderness, but it also is to english be found in the “civilized” world: in swamps or low spots on farms, at the edges of fields, in the margins of cultivation (agricultural and social). Thoreau himself, as Walden demonstrates, seeks out the alighieri wild and lives it on those very margins. He notes in “On Walking,” “For my part, I feel that with regard to Nature, I live a sort of border life….” His wild is not an inhuman isolation from the tame or civilized, but instead is a force which gives energy, vitality, or following Whitehead, articulates the “ultimate metaphysical ground, the creative advance into novelty.” The wild is a source, a wellspring that creates in spite of the essay cultivation that civilization demands.
It is the tang of the wild apple or the wilding potato growing on the edge of a cultivated Peruvian field ready to bring new taste and characteristics to the dinner table. Alighieri Essay Topics? A place to 500 word robinson locate this is in one of his seemingly offhand rants near the end of the essay where, as a counter to an American obsession with the practical (or as a proleptic critique of the neo-liberal University), he calls for a “Society for the Diffusion of Useful Ignorance.” He immediately renames ignorance “beautiful knowledge” to distinguish it from the practical, but it could just as easily be called “the wild” as he follows his proposal with a Whitmanesque image of cattle who find vitality in the new spring grass after a winter of hay. Ignorance can take many forms, and usually not particularly positive ones, but Thoreau’s is a plea for thought freed from the cultivation of a rigidified civilization, of one that only listens to narrowly defined expert voices speaking an dante officially sanctioned discourse. Useful ignorance is a form of naivete, a voice that can produce insights that, because unrecognized, are not available to the expert witnesses. The central figure in Stenger’s “Cosmopolitical Proposal” is the the lobster audio idiot, a conceptual persona she takes from Deleuze (who appropriated it from Dostoevsky). In Stenger’s hands, the idiot is the tentative, unauthorized voice who asks non-sensical or useless questions. Idiotic questioning is a way to strip bare the dante alighieri categories of sense and use.
She does not deny knowledge but does want a fuller understanding of the ground on which it stands: “We know, knowledge there is, but the info idiot demands that we slow down, that we don’t consider ourselves authorized to believe we possess the meaning of alighieri essay topics what we know.” Stenger’s idiot is argumentative essays pro life, a practitioner of Thoreau’s useful ignorance, or perhaps is Thoreau himself–someone willing to ask naively the dante essay obvious question, who slows down a railroaded consensus. Thoreau is the consummate railroad philosopher. Regarding transportation to Fitchburg he notes it would take him a day to earn train fare, but he could walk it in a day, so he opted for the second. Argumentative Essays Pro Life? A form of willful perversity perhaps, maybe a refusal to participate in alighieri topics an unnecessary economy, from most perspectives the action of an idiot, but definitely a way to slow down. In her plea for slow science, Stengers quotes Whitehead’s critique of a narrow professionalism: “minds in argumentative pro life a groove. Alighieri Essay Topics? Each profession makes progress, but it is progress in its own groove. (…) The groove prevents straying across country, and consider the lobster the abstraction abstracts from something to which no further attention is given.” Inherent in this position is the desire to move transversally, as Thoreau advocates, to set out across the fields instead of following established roads, and as a consequence to slow down enough to pay due attention– not just to the world encountered but also to topics the thinking produced by that practice. Naive questioning, slowing down, paying due attention: these are pedestrian practices. In “On Walking” Thoreau notes, “My desire for essay, knowledge is dante alighieri essay topics, intermittent, but my desire to bathe my head in atmospheres unknown to my feet is perennial and constant.” This is contrasted to Emerson’s more famous transparent eyeball, “I become a transparent eyeball; I am nothing; I see all; the china threat economic development currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part of essay topics God.” Thoreau is learning, not after knowledge (at least none of the officially authorized kind), nor does he attain airy transcendence. Instead he wants his head to go where his feet can take him, to those little known places he sought out while sauntering in the woods surrounding Concord. Dante Alighieri Essay? He opens “On Walking” tracing an etymology of saunter, first claiming it describes someone going to Sainte Terre, to the Holy land.
Then he sets out the possibility it comes from sans terre, to essay be without land, which “will mean, having no particular home, but equally at home everywhere.” Ultimately Thoreau prefers the former, but I like the latter because of the alighieri essay double logic it proposes. To be without ground is to acknowledge that the position from which you think and speak is solid but transient. To saunter intellectually is not to be arrogant but instead tentative. You can venture to “speak a word for Nature,” but you cannot utter the argumentative definitive term. You cannot close off the conversation. The second half of the logic is that such groundless can still provide a home, that we don’t have to root ourselves in the village, condemned to repeat the same formulae, nor do we have to run on the grooved rails of the dante essay train. Instead we can slow down, saunter across places hitherto unrealized, looking for knowledge of the wild, or even better, wild knowledge. T. Essay China Threat India Economic Development? Hugh Crawford. Christo’s “Floating Piers”: Learning to Walk. Finding myself in Milan after nearly a year of long-distance trekking, I couldn’t pass up the chance to alighieri essay topics walk on water.
Christo’s latest large-scale installation–the Floating Piers–was open on nearby Lake Iseo. Though not as well-known as its counterparts–Como or Lugano–Iseo is a charming lake with a large island. Instead of the usual ferry, the Floating Piers provides travelers with a bridge from the mainland town of Sulzano across to the island. The lake is in a quiet wine district, and Christo’s installation threatens to overwhelm the region’s infrastructure. Arriving at Sulzano feels more like walking into carnival than an art exhibition. Coursework Promotional Code? It was a brutally hot day, and transport included a packed shuttle bus from satellite parking lots. Given the difficulty of travel and temperature, the alighieri visitors were in remarkably good humor, each showing a quiet expectation or maybe just plain curiosity about what they were about to thesis experience. Dante Alighieri Topics? Christo’s installations tend to be visual–the many draped buildings, his wrapped islands, and interview the canyon curtain–so The Floating Piers is dante alighieri, a divergence.
It is participatory, a set of bridges that are meant to be crossed by walkers, pilgrims of all types learning to consider audio walk on a strange cloth-covered contraption. The installation was first conceived in 1970 by dante alighieri topics, Christo and his collaborator Jeanne-Claude. A three kilometer set of bridges, it links Sulzano with the island town of Peschiera Maraglio and the tiny Isola di San Paolo. Open from coursework info promotional June 18 until July 3, Floating Piers is 220,000 high density polyethylene cubes covered by 100,000 square meters of fabric and held in place by 200 anchors. With a color that approaches school-bus yellow, the bridges float just above the water’s surface with edges tapering to a zero point where the water laps and, on a hot day, invites.
The site and surrounding towns have been overrun with walkers. In the first five days alone, 270,000 vistors arrived, far exceeding all estimates and prompting nighttime closures to enable the towns to clean up and alighieri essay reset for essay on jackie, the next day’s onslaught. Planning walks usually involves maps with trail distance in kilometers and hours, but also topography with details on dante alighieri elevation gain and loss. English? The one bit of information often unavailable is a description of surface. A well-made trail up a steep incline can often be hiked faster than a poorly made level path. The Floating Piers has no elevation change. It is a two-dimensional plane perfectly level with the surface of the water, its colors forming an abstract diagram to dante essay topics be seen from above. Its bold diagonals are a striking sight, but the the surface walked is another matter. It is hard to describe the sensation of crossing. It is a flexing, forgiving surface that enables walking in any footwear (or with none at all) and the lobster audio the map provided does not so much guide as it abstracts.
Many of the visitors are local tourists, but there are also pilgrims from all over the world. Walking there is to hear a cacophony of dante essay languages and experience a cacophony of walking styles. Seasoned trekkers tend to move rapidly and directly, always aware of where they are on a trail and when in coursework high traffic areas paying close attention to the movement of dante alighieri others. It is a full-bodied dance that is direct but accommodating, open but precise. In contrast, The Floating Piers is walked by 500 word on jackie, a variety of people, each struggling to find their pace in relation to a crowd which moves to different rhythms or does not move at all (Selfie sticks have replaced trekking poles on this trail). The paths on the islands vary in width, but the topics floating bridges themselves are a uniform 16 meters wide. Covered in essay robinson what they describe as a “simmering yellow” fabric, the walkway provides only dante alighieri topics one sense of directionality–across the learning thesis lake and back. The surface itself is dante alighieri essay topics, unmarked, giving no indication of insurance study interview where to walk.
I recall hiking the dante alighieri essay Ninety-Mile Beach on the northernmost part of 500 word on jackie New Zealand. Dante Alighieri? In that wide expanse of sand, I found myself unconsciously following any track that appeared–human footprints, tire marks, even the essay seaweed of the dante alighieri essay tide line–if only to find a sense of where and how to walk. Christo’s walkers are given a blank space. The bridges are not long distance trails, nor are they city streets or the arcades of the lobster a shopping center. They have a direction, but give their walkers no directions. What is most striking about the project surface is that, like water, it is alighieri, not a rigid plane. Audio? The piers flex, float, and move according to their own complicated pattern, one that is influenced by the movement of the lake surface, the wake of boats, and the wind, but also by the footsteps of the many walkers. If you expect them to follow a pattern based on a human scale, you are in for a surprise as the surface rises to your foot or withdraws from it with no discernible rhythm. Consequently, the crowds moving in either direction (in or out) have to navigate the unpredictability of their fellow walkers and essay the chaotic flexing on china india the surface on dante which they stride. Learning? Perhaps it is the school-bus yellow, maybe the sharp and bold abstraction of alighieri essay topics its lines, or just the argumentative essays pro life sheer child-like playfulness of the entire project, there is something about the Floating Piers that turns its users into alighieri topics, children. It is a playful concept, but more fundamentally its users, like toddlers, must learn to argumentative pro life negotiate the dante alighieri surface where they walk and the people with whom they share that surface.
The day I walked the Floating Piers, I got to insurance case study interview tiny Isola di San Paola (the most playful section of the dante alighieri project) to find a pontoon workboat floating just off the yellow fabric coast. India Economic Development? Christo was there with guests, including a man wearing yellow pants that appeared to be made from the bridge cover fabric (I’m sure they had a few extra yards lying around). There is nothing unusual about an artist visiting his own installation, but there was something poignant about this. Were it the opening for an earlier work, Christo would have been occupying more or less the same perspective as his audience. Here the artist was offshore looking obliquely at the planar surface of his art, but primarily he was looking at the walkers on that plane who were turning his bridges into bridges. The floating piers are just beautiful abstract surfaces on the lake surface until the walkers arrive. Topics? Then the paths become paths, the toddlers learn to walk, and insurance a new, albeit temporary, community is formed. Footpaths are humanity’s first writing, producing marks on the land that tell others where to go, and they, by going, create community. Paths exist through use.
Christo’s are temporary and the community of walkers formed is dante essay, transient, but the thesis lesson remains. Given a sufficiently estranging path, we can become toddlers and once again experience the wonder that first walking brings. They were burning the fields in Helambu, mountains terraced like a 3-d model of a topo map but nearly as old as human history. First they burn the dante alighieri chaff and straw, then cultivate with short-handled heavy-headed hoes, a design older than the millennium. Essay On Jackie Robinson? In the larger fields, a wooden plow is pulled by a yoke of yak, writing simple lines in the soil with a metal tip tapering to dante a plain point. The plows are carved from a small tree-trunk with a heavy root angled by the winds, water, and rocks where it grew. A handle is mortised at the butt to give the plowboy control over depth and coursework info promotional code direction.
The ashes from the burn are turned into the soil, but only after the fire has filled the sky with a choking smoke. In the villages they heat and cook with wood, often in essay rooms without chimneys. Instead a hole up in the eaves helps draw some of the smoke from the essay threat india economic kitchen. The paths that wind between villages and farms are littered with empty coughdrop blister-packs, an attempt to sooth the irritation of essay topics indoor and outdoor smoke. The latter was completely unexpected as I climbed the coursework info code trail, finally gaining 3690 meters of altitude. Higher than I had ever been but still not above tree line. The forest remained primarily pine and juniper, though becoming more scrub-like as the essay topics afternoon progressed.
Ahead was a peak the path would go around, but I could see a recent rockslide had sheared off most of its face and the trail rerouted at that point. The foot stones were fresh and there were small cairns signaling the way, but as it turned out, in order to get past the slip, the path went almost to the peak. My altitude sensitive lungs went on consider the lobster essay full alert. Until this point, the hour estimates printed on my map had been spot on, but the walk from Mangengoth to Thadepati Bhanjyand was listed as one hour and took two and a half. Not sure what the kilometers were, but at this altitude they are of dante little consequence. The only thing that mattered was the air.
It is not surprising that Buddhist meditation practices focus so intently on breath. Spiritus is 500 word robinson, elusive at altitude. Just moving about in the Himalayas is an exercise in breathing, a palpable factor in all activity. Visiting the gompa at Bhraga required not just a long walk up the Annapurna Circuit but also slow acclimation. The general rule of thumb is not to gain more than 1000 meters altitude per day, and I was by no means pushing myself on arrival at the village. On learning I could see the inside of the alighieri essay topics monastery which was perched high on a cliff above the village, I had to hustle to coursework info code get up to it in time.
Almost immediately, oxygen debt crushed my stamina. I slowed and methodically made my way to the entrance where I was met by an ancient Nepali doorkeeper who instructed me to remove my shoes and compose my breathing, then led me into an exuberance of Buddhist statuary, imagery, and manuscripts. I wandered in a daze, enthralled at the spectacle and the history it contained (I’m sure lack of oxygen contributed to that daze). On leaving, she tied a thin, blue-green string around my neck (which remains to this day), and I breathed one last time the smell of dante alighieri essay topics incense and ancient learning before descending some meters to the village and essays on abortion pro life its relatively richer oxygen world. Bhraga is on the Annapurna circuit in Nepal. As a child I was a voracious reader in dante alighieri a house with a decent but limited library. I remember Maurice Herzog’s account of the ascent (and more important, descent) of argumentative essays on abortion pro life Annapurna in the first expedition to summit what was then the highest mountain yet climbed by Western mountaineers. That story remained tucked in my psyche, resurfacing when I read about the alighieri topics circuit. I’ve been trekking long enough to have chucked the “bucket list” mentality over the edge many years ago.
My idea was to walk around the Annapurna massif as a sort of pilgrimage, like the Buddhist circumambulation of Mt. Kailash. In my pilgrimage, I would see the villages, people, and consider the lobster essay audio countryside but also the places Herzog’s expedition passed, and alighieri topics I would see the mountain that bulked so large in my childhood imagination. Essays On Abortion Pro Life? Except for ice gear, I carry the equipment necessary to meet most challenges on a trail. The description of the Annapurna Circuit was quick to point out dante essay topics, that people of moderate fitness were capable of info promotional code finishing, so I didn’t worry much about the specifics. Alighieri Topics? My first days out were uneventful, walking without a guide on a well-marked, well-travelled path. As the days passed, I encountered many of the argumentative essays same trekkers, listening to their conversations which almost never mentioned the walk itself. Instead, like a mantra, they repeated the alighieri words “Thorung La,” a pass that, at 17,769 ft., was the highest point on the circuit.
It soon became clear most of my hiking colleagues were focused almost exclusively on essay china economic development the challenge of that pass. Along with the 1000 meter rule, everyone hydrated relentlessly and many ate lots of garlic, a folk remedy I was most happy to follow. Alighieri? Morning eggs in the guest houses were usually covered in garlic. Some were also taking Diamox (acetazolamide), a drug used to treat Marfan’s syndrome and some forms of epilepsy. It is a diuretic which tends to acidify the blood, causing deep breathing and insurance study increasing the blood’s oxygen supply, so it supposedly works as prophylaxis for mountain sickness. For these people, a pilgrimage around and dante alighieri topics through a remarkable landscape had been reduced to hemoglobin, to blood and oxygen. My passage over Thorung La was uneventful. A beautiful but bitter cold day, a long steady climb followed by on abortion pro life, a hasty descent to Kagbeni, it was satisfying and, by walking at a judicious pace, my blood remained well-oxygenated. A few weeks later, on another continent I came to understand thin air.
I began the final ascent of dante alighieri essay topics Mt. Kilimanjaro at midnight, but not before asking the guides about the rationale for case interview, such a strategy. We had already spent days acclimating, and it seemed unwise to disrupt diurnal patterns just at the moment we were readying for the big push. Dante Alighieri Topics? They offered three explanations, each plausible, but not entirely convincing. The hike up from Kibo huts to Uhuru peak is less than six km with a little more than 1000m altitude gain. The summit is 5895m (19,341?). For comparison, Everest is learning thesis, 29,029?, and the highest peak in North America is Denali coming in at 20,310?. So the first answer had some merit– seeing the alighieri sunrise from the crater rim is an incredible experience.
People walk up Poon Hill in Nepal starting at 4:00 am to see the sun rise over the Annapurna massif and english Daulighiri, but that is a well-marked and fairly short track. Another reason: it was the wet season and the rains tend to start mid-morning, so they wanted to get up and then off the mountain early. The last, which seemed both patronizing and topics nonsensical, was actually the best. Hikers cannot see what they are climbing in the dark. It might only be six kilometers and coursework only 1000 meters elevation gain, but it is straight up the essay highest mountain in Africa. At 11:00, we had coffee and biscuits and by the stroke of midnight were walking out of camp, each wearing a headlamp directed at our feet. English Learning? We soon discovered that rain the day before was snow up high, and within the hour we were in ankle-deep powder, each of us following single file, seeing only the terrain illuminated by our headlamps and concentrating on the footprints directly in front of us. This went on for six hours. Dante Essay? Initially, I treated it the on jackie way I do all long treks.
Walking is an opportunity to alighieri essay topics think, but walking and thinking at high altitude is a curious and subtle experience. I found while I did the Kili shuffle–placing one foot directly in front of the other, heel to insurance case interview toe with no space between (very much Pink Floyd’s The Wall walk)–I could maintain a train of thought, but soon the lack of oxygen took effect, and I could only focus on the feet stepping in front of me, step after step, hour after hour. Climbing in snow is physically taxing, and as the air thinned, every misstep or slip interrupted carefully patterned breathing which in turn made me stop to pant, trying to get oxygen balance back. The new snow slowed our pace, so we arrived at Gilman’s point on dante topics the crater rim much later than expected. Kilimanjaro is a dormant volcano– a singular peak rising out of the audio Rift Valley that characterizes the geology of dante alighieri topics East Africa. We rested briefly, and for the first time could see beyond the halos of our headlamps. The sun washed across the landscape, making shadows of unbelievable intensity and info promotional code finally breaking the monochrome of our night walk. Alighieri Essay? By now I was really feeling the altitude. I had crossed Thorung La with little distress, but given the exertion of climbing in snow, I was gasping for the lobster essay audio, air and feeling many of the symptoms of altitude sickness.
Nevertheless I continued the last bit of the climb around the crater rim to Uhuru point. There were congratulations all around, but what stunned us all was the sheer magnificence of a clear, rainless morning looking out over the glaciers surrounding a breathtaking crater (and I mean breathtaking in its most literal sense). We soon turned back– lingering at the peak invites many problems including body-temperature drops and perhaps more time sliding down the incline in the rain. We made our long return to Kibo huts, and each step brought more oxygen. After a glorious hour resting, we geared back up and made the descent to Horombo, had supper and slept the sleep of the dante essay dead. Emily Dickinson once wrote that “the brain is wider than the sky.” On Kilimanjaro, I learned that a tired, physically stressed, and oxygen-starved brain is no wider than the faint outline of a headlamp illuminating footsteps in the snow. Air signals its presence in other ways, perhaps most directly by moving. In Nepal climbing to Tilicho Lake, I watched the snow on a mountainside break off, sliding into a ravine a couple of kilometers from where I walked. There was no danger the avalanche could reach the 500 word on jackie trail, but in a few moments the clear sunny day was filled with airborne ice crystals moving east fast and wet.
About 20 minutes later, the same ricocheting wave recrossed the path, this time moving west, once again covering me completely in ice. Dante Alighieri Essay Topics? The Tongiriro Crossing on New Zealand’s North Island involves altitude change though nothing like Kilimanjaro. The edge of the Red Crater is insurance study interview, a little over dante alighieri, 1800 meters and when I was to cross during my hike of the Te Araroa Trail there was still snow, a lot of it. Tongariro is one of those hikes that swiftly changing weather can make dangerous. My morning started out cold (down at low elevation) and wet, though there were glimpses of sun, and the cloud cover did not look significantly different from essays on abortion a typical New Zealand morning in late Spring. My plan was to first hike to the Ketatahi Hut which was about 18 km, so I hoped to get there mid-morning and would then have a sense of alighieri how the weather would play out. Early on 500 word the hike went well, a long road walk followed by well-designed and maintained paths. When I emerged from the bush and topics started hiking the robinson alpine tundra the alighieri essay topics temperature started to drop, and the wind picked up. Still, I was well dressed in wind/rain gear, ready for what I thought would come, but the rain intensified and the wind was soon gale force.
At times it actually pushed me off the trail. The last kilometer or two were otherworldly– horizontal rain, freight-train wind, and no clear end in sight. Then the learning thesis hut appeared (not a moment too soon). The first thing I saw when I got to the door was a sign redesignating the hut as a temporary shelter. It was not an overnight site any longer because of a recent eruption which had dropped rocks through the roof and alighieri disrupted the foundation. Essay On Jackie Robinson? I went inside, stripped off wet clothes, and with shivering hands made an early lunch. As I did not get appreciably warmer–the wind by now was bashing the alighieri essay topics sides of the cabin– I spread out my sleeping bag on china threat the table and crawled in, which soon got my body temperature to dante essay a better range. Before long some Department of Conservation people showed up to work on the hut, surprised to find anyone there in essay such weather and relieved that I had decided to return down the way I had come. I packed up, headed back into dante alighieri essay topics, the maelstrom, and consider essay audio could feel the temperature creep up as the altitude decreased.
While hiking back down the mountain, I thought about Thoreau in The Maine Woods where he climbed Katahdin, though he did not achieve the summit. Dante Alighieri Essay? His description of the mountain is some of his best writing, and I was thinking about how to promotional code him Katahdin was a cloud machine, making its own weather. He did not end up posing at the top for pictures the way Appalachian Trail thru-hikers do today, but he experienced the mountain in all its weather fury. From that perspective, his was a successful climb, as was mine that day on dante alighieri Tongariro. Another of Thoreau’s mountains is New Hampshire’s Mount Washington, a place where the air asserts itself insistently. It is china india economic development, a mountain with a constant flow of tourists. I remember one day climbing it through the Tuckerman Ravine with one of my sons. Like Katahdin, Washington is also a cloud factory, so on nearing the summit the essay mist came in. Tom asked if we were close, and I responded that I could see something just ahead.
As it turned out, that something was the bumper of a car. We summited through a parking lot, then stood next to coursework tourists in street clothes waiting our turn to snap a picture by the sign at the peak. Dante Essay Topics? Flat and exposed, Washington is situated at a point where major storm systems from the south and the west converge. It can have temperatures as low as -35 and, at essay threat economic 231 mph, the highest wind speed ever directly recorded by humans. Essay? It is no wonder that in the past 150 years, almost the same number of case interview people have died on essay topics its slopes. Like Tongariro, the weather changes rapidly, with storms scudding in at an unheralded pace. Coursework Info Code? Standing at the peak, ignoring the cog-railway and full parking lot, watching the clouds mark the wind direction and speed, is to experience air as air. Today when people speak of a medium they might be thinking of essay topics a trafficker in the spiritual realms but more likely are referring to a communication medium. I currently teach in the newly re-named School of Literature, Media, and Communication, where media finds itself squarely in 500 word on jackie robinson the middle, sandwiched between an elderly media form and the study of how to get the message through as clearly as possible. At least since McLuhan (actually since Plato), people concerned with effective communication focus not just on the message but also on essay its medium since, obviously, its specific affordances configure the messages that pass. Idealists desire transparency, the english mythic state where the medium recedes to such an extent that the message stands clear for all to see and understand.
In Remediation , my old friend and colleague Richard Grusin makes the distinction between immediacy and hypermediacy, where the topics first characterizes the push for transparency while the second calls attention to both the limitations and the affordances of the medium itself. Similar to Heidegger’s tools “ready-to-hand” and “present-to-hand,” immediacy and hypermediacy are engaged in a constant dance. One leads for a moment, then the other, as the message is passed and its medium registered. Essay Threat India Economic? In the dante alighieri essay topics last half-century, we have come to think of information moving through a medium as fundamental to essay robinson the maintenance of dante society and vital for continuing life through our very genetic structure. In a climate-controlled environment (at least in the West), air rarely shows itself as hypermediacy. Instead it seems textbook immediacy. Indeed, except for startling instances of dense air pollution (or to a trekker on the Helambu circuit during spring field preparation), the primary characteristic of air is its transparency. Something invisible, beneath notice, surely does not carry a message of consequence, but of course it does. We respond somatically to changes in air pressure. We feel deep in our souls the freshness of a clear cool morning.
We feel the oppressive weight of water on a humid day, and a stiffening breeze signals a change in the weather. The down on our cheek trembles in the slightest current of air or shift in temperature, but what makes air so clearly a medium is its very transparency. To experience the big outside on an exceptionally clear day is to be enthralled by its clarity, by coursework info, exactly that which you cannot see. As William Carlos Williams says in the first poem of Spring and All : under the surge of the blue. mottled clouds driven from the. northeast—a cold wind.
Now the grass, tomorrow. the stiff curl of wildcarrot leaf. One by alighieri essay topics, one objects are defined — It quickens: clarity, outline of leaf. The transparency of the air there does not withdraw in the face of the immediacy of the object–it produces it, enables it, and mediates it. Air is our first medium. T. Hugh Crawford.
Walkers Have Never Been Modern. for Bruno Latour. Robert MacFarlane along with Stanley Donwood and Dan Richards wrote a beautiful little book called Holloway . A holloway is “a sunken path, a deep shady lane. A route that centuries of foot-fall, hoof-hit, wheel-roll, rain-run have harrowed into the land.” In other words, a holloway embodies and records a human history of acting in and with the the lobster audio non-human world, a world made of topics earth, stone, water, but also animals, wheels, wagons, and tools. I recently finished the Camino Frances path of the Camino de Santiago, crossing the case Pyrenees near St. Jean-Pied-de-Porte and walking through Pamplona, Burgos, and Leon to Santiago de Compostela, and then beyond to dante topics the Costa de Morte, to Muxia and china threat india Finisterre (900 kilometers). Though its paths are not usually as deep as the holloways MacFarlane explores in England, they record a deep history, one of pilgrimages to Finisterre that even predate the Christian Era. While parts today must be re-routed to newer paths to avoid trekking on what have become major highways, the Camino breaths a complex history, passing by every church in dante essay its path, but also circling natural formations, avoiding rugged climbs, reflecting the wisdom of the choices made by insurance interview, centuries of walkers. With each step, the modern peregrino is constantly aware of those years of wear, an overwhelming sense of human and nonhuman history. Some years ago, I hiked the Appalachian Trail with one of my sons, a trek markedly different from the Camino for a number of reasons. Over 2000 miles, the AT winds its way up the east coast ridge of the United States, from Georgia to Maine, never very far from large population centers but on land that is largely depopulated, giving little sign of its ever having been occupied.
There are of course moments when hikers feel history. Passing through northwestern Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland is a lesson on significant battles of the American Civil War, but often the sense of hikers, one reinforced by the designers and maintainers of the trail, is that they are walking in wilderness, a place devoid of human history. This mood is even stronger for dante essay topics, those hiking the other two major US long-distance trails–the Pacific Crest and the Continental Divide–both of which indulge walkers in the fantasy that they are walking where no one has walked before. Unlike the intensely historical nature of the Camino, the trope of on jackie American long-distance trails is uninhabited wilderness. Native-American habitation has been literally and symbolically erased from that landscape. American hikers, particularly those from the west, tend to fetishize this blankness, using human absence as a form of valuation, what is called the essay topics “fallacy of the wilderness.” It is as if there have been no “centuries of foot-fall, hoof-hit, wheel-roll, rain-run.” It may seem odd to turn to a French philosopher of science and technology to talk about attitudes toward the wilderness and human history, but Bruno Latour, in case study interview his early book We Have Never Been Modern and the recent An Inquiry Into Modes of Existence gives a vocabulary to help frame these observations. Dante Alighieri Essay? At the coursework code risk of dante alighieri essay topics oversimplification (which is inevitable given the length of this essay), We Have Never Been Modern is a critique closely related to essay Alfred North Whitehead’s notion of the “bifurcation of nature” which initially was a criticism of the philosophical distinction between an object’s primary and secondary qualities but eventually becomes a tool to dismantle the subject/object distinction that has dominated modern philosophy at least since Kant which is the avowed purpose of An Inquiry Into Modes of Existence. Dante Topics? In Latour’s timeline, Modernism began (or did not actually begin) when Western philosophy accepted and enforced a rigorous distinction between the subject and the object.
An accomplished modernity would be one that could rigorously control the boundary between knowledge of the natural world and of human society. Latour’s insight is that while that wall might be tall and seemingly impregnable, it (like all geopolitical walls real or imagined) cannot stop subject/object hybrids (what he calls “quasi-objects” and “quasi-subjects”) from proliferating. No matter how hard the modern knowledge police work, the subject/object distinction cannot be maintained for long. A nature untrammeled by human contact and history, one seen only from a scenic overlook or walked on paths that were never built for transportation or human labor, is the wilderness ideal. From that perspective, American long-distance trails mimic the modernity Latour decries, one that erases the history of the material world and the imprint of learning human thought and action on dante alighieri topics the landscape. 500 Word Essay On Jackie? They are a celebration of Nature purged of all humans except the limited few with the strength, stamina, time, and financial wherewithal to make the trek. The holloway is an example of the essay sort of hybrid Latour invokes to destabilize the notion of an english thesis accomplished modernity. Dante Alighieri Essay? The holloway is code, objective, made of what we would call natural objects–dirt, stones, trees, roots, plants–and is subject to natural forces–rain, wind, drought, frost heave. But it is also social as it was made and is maintained by human activity, serving as a conduit for labor, play, transportation, and human contact. To walk a path is to live its history and trip over its ruts, at dante topics the same time!
The modernity Latour critiques is one without history, and english thesis many ways it is dante topics, one without thought. An accomplished modernism would be completely sleek, completely measurable, completely computable. It demands a seamless infrastructure, one that never calls attention to itself (see “Swinging Bridges”). Pro Life? In many ways, it is the neo-liberal dream. Walking a holloway track– the Camino de Santiago or Nepal’s Helambu circuit–is to alighieri essay topics feel a sedimented history, but also much more. When you walk long enough, modern concerns (I owe money, I have obligations, I must be productive) diminish and something else (without the I) opens up. A range of forces come to coursework info promotional code bear–gravity, oxygen levels, a fine-grained sense of the weather, attention to flora, fauna, the impress of human activity, and memory. These and other factors constitute a mood that can open to reflection and ultimately open onto the possibility of thinking instead of having thoughts which, like ideas, become tokens to move about in some discourse to be measured and dante essay topics validated by a calculus of intellectual activity. The latter–thoughts–are prized by the neo-liberal academy as they can be converted into consider the lobster essay audio, statements that circulate as a proxy for thinking and an emblem of intellectual activity, but are actually a faint shadow of the non-modern experience of thinking. In that light, the academia’s long slide from celebrating wisdom to knowledge (18th century) to information (20th century) to data (21st century) is to the neo-liberal university, a place of constant self-assessment, periodic review, and impact analysis, a machine designed to halt thinking in alighieri essay topics its tracks. The optimism of Latour’s book is the lobster essay audio, his claim that we have never been modern, that such a state can never be accomplished because the alighieri essay boundary between subject and object, self and world, is a chimera.
Purification gestures may create power relations and try to essay china india reduce thinking to having thoughts, but the hybrid I am calling thinking proliferates outside those boundaries, in topics a world that never was modern. On morning I woke in a Kathmandu hotel with no electricity which is of course a regular occurrence in most of the world. Technological differences tend to be what we first notice when visiting other places. Heading out of the city deeper into thesis, the mountains is a move toward fewer conveniences and what seems a simpler life. Many writers, including some I highly respect, describe this as stepping “back in time.” I understand what they mean. In isolated rural areas, the dante alighieri essay daily practices of the people living there are often quite similar to those of their ancestors. Farmers tilling narrow terraced fields with short-handled heavy hoes or metal-tipped wooden plows with a yoke of oxen is a scene repeated for centuries if not millennia, so for visitors, it is of an antique simplicity. However the “back in time” attitude is the china development result of a parochial sense of modernity. Yes, without doubt, the people living in, say, Melamchigaon are not working in sanitized, hermetically-sealed, climate-controlled environments staring at computer screens all day, but they live in the 21st century, surrounded by artifacts of that era including the ubiquitous steel and aluminum sheathing, cell phones, polyester jackets, airplanes and helicopters circling, soldiers patrolling with automatic weapons.
While they may not be in a high-tech envelope, they, like the vast majority of the world’s population, are in the larger 21st century world. The place where they live and work is a hybrid of high tech and traditional practices that a narrow, hyper-modern view overlooks. What the “back in dante time” trope brings is a sense of distance from and consider essay a concomitant blindness to the hybrid nature of all our lives. Silicon Valley daily life is also full of alighieri activities long practiced by humans but overlooked in pursuit of a digital totality. Ezra Pound’s plea to “make it new” starts with an “it” that is modernized, but the “it” and all its deep history is sedimented in that “new.” Stepping into Melamchigaon is not a temporal disjunction. English Thesis? It is spatial. It is stepping into a different modernity or, to dante alighieri essay use Latour’s terminology, into the non-modern world where we have been all along. T. Hugh Crawford. Early on in Walden , Thoreau says, “It is true, I never assisted the threat india economic sun materially in his rising, but, doubt not, it was of the last importance only to alighieri topics be present at it.” Presence at first light, ever elusive but somehow fundamental. The labors of insurance case many people require they rise before the sun, but being up early does not necessarily put one in dante alighieri essay topics the presence of the sunrise as an event, the first of the new day. Info Promotional Code? Long-distance walkers are a privileged few as they, like Thoreau, are up and dante alighieri essay about, doing their daily labor before the development sun, and most days find themselves lingering on some path watching the unfolding of dante essay yet another rosy-fingered dawn.
In El Gamso on the Camino de Santiago, G–, my trekking partner suggested we get up early enough to see the sunrise from the peak at Cruz de Ferro. Walkers are game for most things, but this was a pre-dawn trek of 15 km including a long steep climb. Essay China Threat Development? At 4:00 am, we were up and in dante essay a few minutes hiking fast and hard down the path, headlamps dimly lighting the way. It was smooth but still there was the occasional stumble. Essay? An advantage of the early time was a sky awash with stars, the Milky Way streaming through the middle, punctuated by the occasional meteorite, but we had to ignore the sight most of the time, focusing instead on our feet. There was less than 3 hours time to cover the distance. Before long a crescent moon rose at our backs, partly showing the way.
That time of morning brings new sensations. Birds often unheard call out. Different temperature gradients cross the skin. The earth and plants exhale unique odors. Topics? Setting a brisk pace, we made the essay the next town in good time but then had to climb a ridge in mud and flowing water, all as the horizon began to lighten ominously. Soon anticipation gave way to near despair.
Pushing on through the just-waking village of Foncebadon, we crested the alighieri essay main ridge, still short of Cruz de Ferre but finding an ideal place to see the morning in. Sunrises happen every day but they are never the same. This day some low clouds ran interference as the the lobster essay orange intensified along the horizon, then a brilliant flash of yellow light turned our retinas purple. Soon the alighieri sun’s rays touched all around and, though we had not materially assisted in its rising, we had contributed our mite and received everything in info return. It’s a strange feeling to have been up and toiling long and dante hard only to recognize that a new day has just commenced. The Lobster Audio? We got up, stretched, and made our way to the Cruz de Ferre, an iron cross atop a tall wooden pole surrounded by a huge pile of rocks brought by peregrinos from all over the world. Dante Alighieri? I found a rock by the path and consider the lobster pitched it over my head onto dante essay topics, the pile, while G– retrieved the one she had carried from some far away place. Anticipation frames a moment, but the robinson moment always exceeds it. That morning while watching the sunrise, I could not help but recall Holderlin’s hymn, “The Ister,” and Heidegger’s commentary in a book of the same name. Dante Essay Topics? I kept repeating the opening lines:
Command, presence, inevitability, anticipation, anxiety. Sunrise is but one in 24 hours of moments, but it is a singularity, an edge, a precise point. It predates industrial time and 500 word essay on jackie robinson is measured not in seconds or minutes but in duration–a taunt, stretched now that extends from the first bit of pure light to the emergence of the sun as full body. Heidegger, ever the interrogator, questions Holderlin’s opening line: “Yet if “the fire” comes of dante essay its own accord, then why is english thesis, it called? The call does not effect the coming.” He is pursuing a broader philosophical point, but his questioning uncovers the walker’s dilemma, one phrased by Thoreau differently but essentially asking the dante alighieri essay same thing: what calls for presence at a sunrise? Eager to see the day, we pause watching colors, the false dawn, then the info code moment of dante topics pure light. Our eagerness calls on the sun to come, but it was the sun all along that brought us to this ridge. Presence at sunrise questions Being in 500 word essay on jackie ways few other quotidian actions can. The most temporal of dante alighieri events calls the caller out of measured time into duree.
It is time as a thread stretched to absolute thinness. Clocks do not tick at sunrise; time expands, filling the horizon. But fire can bring destruction, and to think the now is to think its end. Not far from the Cruz de Ferro is the Galician Atlantic coast and Finisterre, the end of the earth in the Medieval world, the place where the study sun goes to die. On the Costa de Morte there once was the altar of dante topics Ara Solis dedicated to that daily dying sun, something pilgrims witness with each sunset. Learning Thesis? Sunrise is both inevitable and not, prompting questions of the end rather than the beginning.
Ben Schneider (of the band Lord Huron) asks, “what if the world dies with the sunrise?” Not an dante alighieri essay anxiety strongly felt by those called to witness the beginning of the day, but a thought that lurks in the background. Consider Essay? To anticipate an event is to entertain the possibility of it not happening. Heidegger also calls the now the “time of poets.” The sun calls the poets to write. It calls walkers differently, not to give words but more fundamentally to mark the surface of the earth, to write paths with bootsoles. To be present at the sun’s rising, the way is trod, the ridge is climbed. Topics? To participate in the now of that moment is to be part of insurance a longstanding community with feet maintaining the alighieri topics way and naming the history of the land’s dwellers, sometimes going back millennia. Insurance Case? The pause on the ridge gives the alighieri essay topics sunrise a silent voice. An event made reverent by the act of stopping to pay attention, to coursework info attend.
Deleuze asks of Leibniz and Whitehead “What is an Event?” He then produces a multiplicity of answers, or, to put it the same way, his answer is a multiplicity with some convergence. Topics? An event is a gathering to an intensity, a set of learning thesis forces singled out and essay topics directing attention. It is, in Whitehead’s terms, a concresence of elements, the active creation of the new and, I would add, the now which is always novel. Sunrise calls out argumentative essays pro life, a particular now for our attention, showing by implication the production, the concresence, of all nows, however unremarkable others may be. Sitting there on that hill in essay topics that moment was an event. We did not materially assist the sun in its rising, did not wake the birds’ songs or paint the learning thesis full palette of colors on the sky or cause the mist to dante essay rise from the plowed earth or bring both light and shadow to play across the land.
But we were there attending and anticipating. Already wide-awake from a long, hard hike, we were there to begin the new day. T. Hugh Crawford. During these long walks, I’ve been thinking about bridges. This essay would have appeared here, but my friend Ian and the folks at the Atlantic decided to publish it there: http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/04/swinging-bridges/478980/ For related material, please see the Pointless Essays tab below. A Walker of Rivers. Water–you’d have thought I’d had enough of it. Starting the Te Araroa on September 1st (against the advice of everyone consulted), I sloshed my way through the Herekino and Rataea forests, splashed up the essays pro life Mangapukahukanu, climbed any number of dante topics peaks to admire the fog, and even tried (unsuccessfully) to thesis wade across the mouth of the Okura just north of Auckland.
The better part of my first two months on the Te Araroa was in a damp mist if not outright downpour. But as spring gave way to summer, that fog lifted and water took on a new and surprising quality–indescribable beauty. When hiking the Appalachian Trail in dante alighieri essay the United States, I crossed many rivers–from the white water of the Nantahala in robinson North Carolina to alighieri essay topics the broad slow tidal waters of the Hudson just above New York City, or the Kennebec in Maine where a paid staffer ferries thru-hikers across in a canoe. The Te Araroa has more than its share of consider tough river crossings, particularly on the South Island–the Rakaia, Rangitata, and my personal nemesis, the Ahuriri–but along with crossings, the dante alighieri essay TA also brings opportunities to hike a river’s length, to become a walker of case interview rivers. Dante Alighieri Topics? Each has its own attractions and devotees, but for me, nothing compares to the trek from St.
Arnaud along Lake Rotoiti then up the Travers River to coursework promotional its high mountain source. I woke early at the backpacker hostel in the Nelson Lakes Motel–one of those places cherished by hikers both for its amenities and dante the information passed between staff and fellow trekkers. The Lobster Essay? Triple Hands Dave, a mountain guide who had also hiked the Appalachian Trail, was already cooking breakfast for his crew. I made coffee while we talked about the differences between the AT and the TA. Dante Topics? Little did I know, I was about to start a day’s hike that would bring into stark relief those very differences. I soon packed up and headed out, but not to the trail just yet. One of learning my Te Araroa resolutions was to never eat food from my pack when there was a restaurant nearby, so I wandered down to alighieri topics the St. Arnaud Cafe for the “big breakfast.” Hiking the Appalachian Trail brought few opportunities for essays pro life, a cafe breakfast.
It was almost always an early morning meal of dante essay cold poptarts or granola bars before plunging back in 500 word robinson the wilderness, so lingering in alighieri topics a cafe was quite the luxury. The morning was cold as I sat at the picnic tables waiting for the cafe to open, using some free wifi to catch up on the news and staving off obligations back in the States. Promotional Code? Soon I was tucking into a hearty breakfast followed by ice cream (on both the AT and alighieri essay the TA, thru-hikers can eat as much as they want, a habit hard to break after returning to a more sedentary life). Soon the trail beckoned, and I started the thirty kilometer hike to argumentative essays on abortion Upper Travers Hut. The best beginning of a day, one that limbers up old arthritic joints, is an easy flat walk. Along the shore of dante alighieri topics Lake Rotoiti, one of the Nelson Lakes that give water a good name, the manicured path at times veers out onto gravel beaches giving a chance to linger and china threat economic development study the water’s color, texture, and dante essay topics the lake bottom which, regardless of depth, always seems just inches from the surface. By the time I got to coursework info code the top of the lake, my legs felt young and the sun was shining brightly. Dante Topics? There was a clear sense of learning adventure in the air, and the water was in the lake, streams and topics river, not coming down on me from the sky.
The valley opened up as the trail crossed old pastures and audio followed the winding of the Travers, occasionally crossing by those swinging bridges that still give me pause. Walking those lower parts close to the river, I became increasingly aware of the water’s clarity, marveling at its almost unimaginable color. In the United States before the advent of brown ceramic insulators, rural electrical lines were strung on blue-green glass knobs. Today those knobs are collectibles (they make great paper weights). The one siting on my desk at dante topics home echoes the color of the Travers River, but it is a only a feeble echo.
The hike took me from the lake to english learning the headwaters, so the river’s life unfolded across the day, going from the staid maturity at the mouth to the rollicking turbulence of youth (yes, the water really does rollick over rocks). The trail would wind through a mixed forest then return to the water’s edge, each time bringing another striking view. The water was yesterday’s mountaintop snow, its taste icy and intoxicating. I stopped once to look into dante alighieri essay topics, what must have been a deep pool, though it was difficult to interview judge the depth of something so transparent. As I stared at the bottom– perfect, round blue-gray stones– a trout caught my eye. Large, brown, at least 20 inches long and initially invisible, the fish was holding steady in dante alighieri topics the current. I’m not a fisherman though at that moment I wish I were. Instead I found myself thinking of Ernest Hemingway’s short story “Big Two-Hearted River” where Nick Adams, the protagonist, is recovering from the mental anguish of fighting in World War I. He goes fishing in northern Michigan, and early in the narrative leans over a bridge rail to watch big trout in the current. Economic Development? Nick has travelled to this river hoping to find a way to steady himself. Dante? Similar to most long-distance hikers, his actions are studied–precise, almost ritualized. Taking care is a way for him to control his situation and dampen down the china india economic uncertainty that wartime trauma has brought.
Standing there watching that particular trout, I began to dante alighieri topics better understand Hemingway’s story. The Travers plunges down the mountain to english the lake below, waterfall after waterfall. Even slack water is anything but slack. That fish motionless in the pool was swimming fast. Holding steady is hard work. Although smaller streams had been joining the river all day, toward late afternoon, they came rushing in louder. Essay? I could see the mountain looming after passing Hopeless Creek (one of many vaguely ominous place-names along the coursework code Te Araroa).
In contrast to dante the valley, the trail became steeper and argumentative essays pro life more hazardous. The surrounding mountains cast dark shadows, and the trail itself made that familiar move–climbing above the stream then striking out level along an edge both narrow and slippery. I walked with care, staring at the path to keep steady, occasionally stopping to see where it led–a narrow chasm cut by slips, slides, and tumbling brooks. Then I saw, dropping straight off a mountain top, a waterfall with fully half of the water making up the Travers river at that point. It was as if someone had just taken up half the essay river and leaned it against a mountain, then let it fall, that blue-green water rushing vertically for what looked to be hundreds of meters.
There are no words. The day was winding down as I finally made my way to pro life the hut which, to my surprise, had smoke coming from the chimney. Alighieri Essay Topics? Hiking the Te Araroa early in the season had been a solitary experience, so I wasn’t expecting company up near the top of Mt. Travers. With the hut in sight, I decided to cut across a meadow in what seemed a more direct route only to discover the way I had chosen was more water than land, so I managed to soak shoes and socks within yards of insurance my destination. On entering I was met by a party–two Kiwi guides from alighieri Picton and four trekkers from Australia. They had crossed the learning thesis lake by boat and spent the previous night at John Tait Hut, clearly hiking a more civilized pace than I was, something evident by their buoyant good humor. Overcrowded huts are a frequent conversation, particularly along the TA, but my early spring start had made most of my hut experiences lonely. I well remember two nights and one very long day at essay Waiopehu in the Tararuas where I found myself wet, cold, and alone staring at windows made opaque by driving rain, wondering what was out there. The morning it cleared brought a clear view of Levin, the town I had hiked out of two days earlier, looking entirely too close for all my hiking efforts. Essay? The Waiopehu and Upper Travers huts are fairly new, spacious, clean and inviting with the Upper Travers made even more so by essay topics, the fire in the wood stove and a group of enthusiastic hikers.
I hung my wet clothes by insurance study, the fire and instead of a solitary evening, I was treated with extra food, some wine, and lively conversation. The next morning, I woke to the expedition leader rekindling the fire, and soon the rest were rustling about. I packed, made breakfast with steaming coffee and even had a second cup, but that day my goal was Waiau Forks which required a climb over Travers Saddle and then, later in the afternoon, Waiau Pass. I said my farewells and walked out into one of those days where the very air is like glass, imparting a sheen on everything within sight. The path soon climbed above the bush and spread out dante essay, below was the entire river valley. On Jackie Robinson? Even though I couldn’t, it seemed as if I could see all the way back to Lake Rotitiri, so for a moment it felt as though I was looking at an illustration in a topography book, one that explained the parts of a river valley, and I had the view from the top. All around were peaks, jagged rocks, some softened by the remaining snow– the snow that melted and fed the alighieri Travers. I lingered for a while at that point where the river began, then turned to start the learning thesis long descent to the Sabine Valley, heading off for another day of walking rivers. T. Hugh Crawford. Mountains weep.
No sadness there, though they do have moods. Water seeps from cracks in rocks, down from thin streams, or gurgles beneath mats of moss. Paths are suddenly slick, the smell of the air changes as does the temperature. Alighieri Essay? You become aware of something that had been absent–or maybe it was following you all along, just beneath the surface. The skies were uncertain at Glenrock Stream. Insurance Case Interview? The wind picked up and rain spotted the stones, but there was also blue sky.
Morning showers on alighieri New Zealand’s South Island often dissipate quickly. The first part of the path was up through pastures. The hills were treeless and covered with brown grass. Coursework Promotional? At erosion points, they showed their foundations: huge piles of gravel covered with a thin layer of soil and desiccated vegetation. Dante Alighieri? Initially the trail was well-formed, so I soon arrived at the first hut, a tiny A-frame tucked up in a draw. China India Economic? By then, the rain had intensified, and I should have gotten out heavy weather gear, but after a brief stop, I pushed on fast for dante, the next hut–Comyns–which was only english learning 6 km away. The wind over the open terrain was staggering and the rain horizontal, but it was at my back. I was already drenched, so I continued, covering the alighieri essay topics distance in a little over an hour, arriving wet, cold, and slightly hypothermic. Comyns is an old musterer’s hut made of china threat india economic corrugated steel siding bolted to a structural steel frame. It rocks and creaks in the wind.
Even though it had a fireplace, there was no wood for heat or to dry clothes. Shivering, I peeled off wet layers, put on camp clothes, made soup, hung my stuff to drip, and crawled into a sleeping bag. Alighieri Essay? It was Thanksgiving, and back home people were sitting down to a meal that was likely more than ramen noodles. Next morning I woke early, put on my still-wet clothes and china threat development followed the trail as it led out over the hill behind the hut. There I found a branch of the Ashburton River which rushed knee-deep and bitter cold past steep boulders. At least today the sun was shining except in the deep shadows, but the trail forded the river all morning (a fellow thru-hiker later told me he had to wade it twenty-three times). My toes were soon numb–it felt as if I had boards strapped to my feet.
Mid-morning, the trail turned off to climb up Round Hill Creek which thankfully was narrow and easier to ford. Late that morning, I stopped and dante alighieri essay sat on a rock, turned to feel the warm sun on my face, and filled my water bottle. Without pausing to purify it, I drank draught after draught, marveling at the taste and china india development reveling in the moment. Water is sublime–awful and awe-inspiring. Writing about the topics Cairngorms in Scotland, Nan Shepherd observes: “This water from the granite is cold.
To drink it at the source makes the throat tingle. A sting of argumentative essays pro life life is in its touch.” Directly encountered raw, water stings and soothes, incapacitates and satisfies. It is multiple. At the extremes a dealer of death and bringer of life, but mostly is a constant, gurgling companion. Plutarch says of the first philosopher, “Thales the Milesian doth affirm that water is the principle whence all things in the universe spring.” For Thales, water is prime matter, but for us it is also the source of the abstract philosophical ideals of purity and clarity. Water is the basis for physics and metaphysics. Today we live different contradictions. Water is an image of purity and a source of fear, the alighieri vehicle of hidden contamination. When I was young, I hiked on my uncle’s land in Highland County, Virginia where a tiny creek ran down through a huge pile of rocks. My uncle, a physician, assured me the essay china threat economic development rocks filtered it, rendering it safe to drink. I lapped it up, satisfied with his explanation and amazed by the taste, absent chlorine and fluorine.
I also remember by brother, on getting his driver’s license, taking jugs over into dante essay topics, the Fort Valley to get Miss Lucy her spring water which, I am fairly certain, was meant for her evening bourbon and branch. Even then, there were few places left where we could drink with confidence from the source. Now, frightened as we all are by english thesis, all the outdoor organizations selling SteriPens and iodine tablets, fearful of giardia, lead, and the thousands of other toxins we have poured into the water table (what exactly is “fracking fluid”?), water is alighieri topics, treated with suspicion. The crisis in english learning thesis Flint, Michigan (which we all know will be followed by dozens of other political/infrastructure failures), combined with the real and imagined dangers of drinking the essay topics water in any country unless served in a sealed plastic bottle, makes it a substance that is anything but an image of purity. It was with a certain cavalier freedom that I indulged the streams of New Zealand, and of course it was risky. One morning hiking out of 500 word on jackie robinson Locke Stream Hut, the trail followed up a beautiful stream where I was ready to alighieri topics drink, only to discover in the headwaters a dead, bloated cow. Water is the essay india economic universal solvent, but what washes away the residue our modern contamination leaves?
Ever the natural historian, Thoreau subjects Walden’s waters to alighieri topics rigorous analysis of clarity and color, claiming his pond first in the Concord Lake District regarding clarity and taste. He writes at length on the color of water, noting it is imparted by surrounding materials– trees, sand, sky. For Thoreau, Walden Pond has the perfect palette–blue sky, white sand, green trees–which reveals the development depths of those colors, and at the same time, the depths of the pond itself (which he constantly surveys). But minerals do impart color, and blue-green or, as the name clearly indicates, aquamarine, is a marker of alighieri essay clarity and purity. English Learning Thesis? I had the chance to walk the essay topics Travers River in consider the lobster audio New Zealand from dante alighieri topics its mouth at Lake Rotoiti to coursework code its headwaters in topics the Travers Saddle. There I saw for myself the color of an amazing water: thick blue-green swirling against rough white rock. Resulting from dissolved minerals, glacier melt, reflection from the sky, vegetation above the surface–no matter–it was the color of magic, and india economic development maybe even truth. To know such water is both to see through it and at the same time, to see its surface, another doubleness that confounds understanding. That day on the Travers, the essay surface reflected and sparkled while the depths, on case study examination, revealed large brown trout, swimming static in the current. Thoreau, ever the master of seeing through and looking at offers a natural history of that surface: “It is a soothing employment, on one of alighieri essay those fine days in the fall when all the warmth of the sun is fully appreciated, to sit on china threat india a stump on alighieri topics such a height as this, overlooking the pond, and study the dimpling circles which are incessantly inscribed on its otherwise invisible surface amid the reflected skies and trees.” Along with being the only widely distributed substance which expands when frozen (making it the most potent of threat india development materials when it comes to shaping the world in which we live), water’s surface tension and adhesive properties enact equally important transformations, including helping it defy gravity through capillary action as well as seep into and through the most unlikely of places.
And, as Thoreau helps us see, water’s surface properties produce arresting effects. There is the hypnotic, psychically lapidary phenomena of ocean waves, but also the strangely textured, patterned ripples on the surface of a stream rolling over its bed. The uneven rocks, through the mediation of the water, produce a ridged geometry that is regular, complex, and utterly compelling. In a poem from The Whitsun Weddings , Philip Larkin also helps us recognize what water reveals, how it provokes human contemplation, and gives access to a wider understanding: If I were called in. To construct a religion. I should make use of water. Going to church. Would entail a fording. To dry, different clothes;
My liturgy would employ. Images of sousing, A furious devout drench, And I should raise in the east. A glass of water. Where any-angled light. Would congregate endlessly. His water is not symbolic, metaphoric, or really even spiritual. Alighieri Essay Topics? Instead it is insistently physical. It souses and drenches furiously. Essays? It is matter, perhaps even Thales’s prime matter.
Along with Larkin, Nan Shepherd writes with insight and understanding about the materiality of water: “For the dante essay most appalling quality of 500 word on jackie robinson water is its strength. I love its flash and gleam, its music, its pliancy and grace, its slap against essay my body; but I fear its strength.” Water is essay on jackie, pliant, it has heft, and dante essay topics ultimately, power. In New Zealand, rivers braid over wide gravel valleys. At any given moment you may be walking on a smooth dry gravel bed or right beside a raging torrent. Absent swinging bridges, trekkers must cross rivers that demand care, something that increases in urgency as the braids get deeper and wider. I remember crossing the Otira near the Arthur’s Pass with some fellow hikers where we locked arms through pack straps and coursework info promotional code marched across together. The man on the downstream end who was both tall and strong floated up from the riverbed and was only kept anchored by his grip and the feet of those of dante alighieri topics us who were upstream. I did not have the same luck some days later trying to cross the consider essay audio Ahuriri. I woke that morning with a vague sense of dread as the descriptions of the trail were not promising.
My direction was up the saddle, down a river with no real trail to follow and dante topics markers that were few and learning thesis far between. Topping that off, there was a ford at the end of the alighieri essay day. Once again, it was cold and wet with rain falling as I headed up to the lobster essay audio the trailhead. Dante Alighieri Topics? The hike initially was uneventful, the mist cleared, and the trail soon turned up toward the pass, following a rollicking stream through an old beech forest. Just before it broke out of the woods above bushline, I stopped at a big rock, got out my stove and 500 word made oatmeal and coffee. Then I just sat, listening to the chorus of voices the water made. No monotony there, the sounds were polyphonic and complex. I could pick out a roar and a tumble, gurgles and dante alighieri topics drips–all playing in a water wall-of-sound. Learning? The following ascent was steep but by noon I was over the saddle and on my way down what turned out to be a well-marked path. Soon I climbed another ridge where a large flat plateau opened up, a space worthy of a Sergio Leone film.
The area was high desert– a lot of water flowing through it but the soil was thin. Dante Alighieri Essay Topics? In the bogs were masses of moss and thesis springy grass and the edges of the streams had bushes and spear grass, but on on the plain, the vegetation was crispy and thin except the dandelions which were blooming by the millions. Alighieri Essay Topics? They were different from the the lobster essay ones back home. Leaves were small and thick with no lobes. Instead, they spread out touching the ground avoiding the essay drying wind to get maximum sun and 500 word on jackie robinson hoard moisture, waiting for the beginning of December to thrust up a single bloom on alighieri a two inch stalk. Info Code? That day was all yellow. Later in the afternoon, the valley flattened, then opened to alighieri topics the river. My plan was to ford and camp just on the other side, but I arrived to find a high, fast-running current.
To the west I could see a range of 500 word robinson snow capped mountains melting fast in topics the day’s hot sun. The river was milky green, so full of glacier melt (milk) that I could not see the bottom. Essays On Abortion? Reading the braids is an art, seeking out points where the river splits into smaller crossable threads. I surveyed the scene and made several tentative forays, trying to dante topics get a good foothold and then cross, but each time I’d get about 1/4 of the way across and the bottom would drop out. The icy water refreshed after a hot walk across the plain, and the density of the water was palpable–so green but so opaque as to make it impossible to argumentative essays on abortion see my feet, let alone the bottom I needed to find. It became obvious I would have to walk along the river instead of across. The map showed a bridge downstream, so off I went, first in the gravel river bed, then up an a small ridge, but the Ahuriri did what all rivers eventually do.
It swung over to my side and crashed hard against a cliff, making walking impossible. Alighieri? About 100 meters nearly straight up was a flat plateau covered in pine which I had no choice but to climb, then weaving in and out of trees, sticker bushes, pasture, barbed wire fences, fording a dozen streams, I finally got to the bridge, having hiked over 12 hours. 500 Word Essay On Jackie? As it was late, I found a flat place to pitch my tent and a small stream for water, then retired exhausted. Some days, the power of the water exceeds all determination. Death by water is actually a frequent occurrence for solitary trekkers who ignore its “appalling quality,” but there are those who seek it out–the Thames in topics T. S. Eliot’s imagination or the Ouse in Virginia Woolf’s actual death. Still, we have turned water into a different medium for death. Global warming brings both unstable weather and the lobster audio drought to dante wider and essay india economic development wider regions.
In spite of its image of clarity and purity, we have decided to dump all of our shit into our water (wise civil engineer there). Today there is scarcely a source that does not require treatment, costing untold dollars in cleanup or for alighieri essay, the medical care for those not lucky enough to have access. 500 Word Robinson? Or it simply hastens the death of alighieri essay topics those who have access to nothing but filth. Insurance? Water wars are our destiny, and soon no one will understand that once water, in essay its natural, unpolluted state, had taste– a brilliant flavor– because the lucky few will only drink treated, purified, filtered piss rather than the insurance case study interview stuff that once bubbled up from springs as if by magic. No, by magic. Nan Shepherd sought out water we no longer know, “that strong white stuff, one of the four elemental mysteries, can here be seen at its origins.” If we no longer have water, do we have origins? Norman MacLean, a writer of rivers, expressed our current situation in alighieri essay topics the closing line of his novella A River Runs Through It : “I am haunted by waters.” His vision is the hauntology of a substance which, like all the previous doublings, is consider the lobster essay audio, both absent and still present in its very degradation. Dante Alighieri Essay Topics? We are haunted by purity, clarity, and loss–an ecology verging on theology. If there is a god, it is water. T. Hugh Crawford.
What if the transcendental field were actually a field? Not a disciplinary field or a term from physics, but instead a field humming and buzzing with life–soil, insects, plants, birds, animals (including humans), with a path through. Gilles Deleuze returns to fields, to info immanence, in his last essay, “Pure Immanence: A Life.” It is dante alighieri topics, a work of old age. Nearing death, A Life deserves to be thought. I have recurred to insurance case this essay many times over the years but have only recently arrived at an age where I feel its richness, something I am still incapable of expressing even as it moves me. So instead I just want to make a tentative claim. Dante Essay? Deleuze’s last essay can be read by walkers as their A Life. In those few pages (it is a remarkably compact piece), he does not mention walking, but does describe with uncanny precision the insurance study experience of non-self, the dante essay actual life that both appears and is performed by serious walkers. Another “pointless essay,” I’m not venturing any real claims beyond the one above. Instead I want to proceed in the manner of my friend Isabelle Stengers and try to audio think with Deleuze (a strategy that requires many quotations, but it is the only way I know how to proceed). His opening sentences are by themselves a complete essay and alighieri topics a summary of A Life: “What is a transcendental field?
It can be distinguished from china experience in that it doesn’t refer to an object or belong to alighieri a subject (empirical representation). It appears therefore as a pure stream of a-subjective consciousness, a pre-reflexive impersonal consciousness, a qualitative duration of english learning consciousness without a self.” Perhaps feeling old, Deleuze is making himself an ancient philosopher–a pre-Socratic–voicing a philosophy of immanence, a philosophy lost because of subjects set over against objects, lost because of the transcendence of the idea of self. As he says in the Nietzsche essay included in Pure Immanence , “The degeneration of philosophy clearly begins with Socrates.” So what would an alighieri a-subjective consciousness be? Practically it seems an consider essay impossibility as, at least to me, consciousness has always been the province of the self, but Deleuze want to speak of a transcendental field (and later pure immanence, the alighieri two of which veer together). So the question is whether it is possible to experience that field prior to 500 word essay or in dante alighieri topics spite of the fall into a subject-object existence. Clearly A Life is some sort of process of recovery. Sitting in a library reading Deleuze can twist the mind. Essay Economic Development? We fall, we grope, yet a-subjective consciousness remains elusive. But the alighieri essay field begins to answer, the field crossed on foot in a long ramble where, as all long-distance walkers know, the subject-object dualism is nonsensical. Minds are in bodies, bodies are in clothes and gear, which in turn are in the world. By that I don’t mean the World writ philosophically large, but rather the physical world being occupied and traversed: this path, this air, these sounds which do not appear to economic development the senses as an outside, an object to be surmounted, but instead are the blurred zone of the becoming of essay topics field.
Not being, not self– field! He follows this opening with the english thesis question that I, having grown up on American Transcendentalism, have always asked of this essay: “It may seem curious that the transcendental be defined by such immediate givens.” Although the alighieri topics Transcendental he struggles against is Kantian, let’s instead walk a bit with Emerson, because I don’t think Deleuze is terribly far from him here (though their paths soon diverge). English Learning Thesis? The ecstatic moment of American Transcendentalism occurs in Nature : “In the woods, we return to dante topics reason and faith. There I feel that nothing can befall me in life,–no disgrace, no calamity, (leaving me my eyes,) which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground,–my head bathed by the blithe air, and insurance uplifted into infinite space,–all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God.” Although I acknowledge the grammatical brilliance of his semi-colons, I have always had difficulty with the speed of Emerson’s movement. Dante? In a few short sentences, he goes from the woods to the “currents of coursework info universal being.” As an inveterate walker himself, Emerson knows crossing such distance takes time. The speed of walking is the speed of dante alighieri thought — something much slower than the essay china threat india economic rapid transcendence Emerson executes here. Of course he has a philosophical point to make, one not to essay topics be found in the field but instead is enabled by the field. Emerson’s transcendence is a movement out case study, of the “givens” of the path he actually walks, so even though his loss of dante essay “mean egotism” seems much like Deleuze’s a-subjective consciousness, in the process it loses its immanence. So it is here that Emerson’s way diverges from Deleuze’s, but let’s follow it for just a moment to see how it aligns with, instead of moving away from argumentative essays pro life Kant’s.
Still from Nature : “The first effort of thought tends to relax this despotism of the senses, which binds us to nature as if we were a part of it, and shows us nature aloof, and, as it were, afloat. Dante Essay? Until this higher agency intervened, the animal eye sees, with wonderful accuracy, sharp outlines and colored surfaces. When the eye of Reason opens, to outline and surface are at once added, grace and expression. These proceed from imagination and affection, and abate somewhat of the angular distinctness of objects.” This in some ways accounts for his rapid transcendence. English Learning? As is clear from his transparent eyeball and fear of losing his sight, Emerson wants to celebrate what the mind brings to perception of nature which is, from the outset, considered as spectatorial other. Alighieri Topics? Emersonian objects are refined by Emersonian subjects. Very much in a Kantian tradition, he wants to celebrate what the mind brings to those objects, the “imagination” and “affection” that temper the angularity of the material world. The other path, the consider essay one followed by Deleuze is through the “animal eye” along with all the other senses (including proprioception) that perform the crossing of the transcendental field.
Given Emerson’s spatio-visual metaphors, his transcendence is a move up, a change in perspective that provides an intellectualized understanding, a bird’s eye view of the field. Deleuze’s transcendental field is only known by keeping feet plodding along that muddy path. A serious walker–one who is tramping long enough for the daily world to vanish and to also move beyond an dante essay aesthetic appreciation of “taking a walk”–can recover the transcendental field that pre-exists the subject-object distinction with a different form of empiricism, one Deleuze calls transcendental: “We will speak of argumentative pro life a transcendental empiricism in contrast with everything that makes up the dante alighieri essay world of the subject and argumentative the object. There is alighieri essay topics, something wild and powerful in this transcendental empiricism that is of course not the element of essay on jackie robinson simple sensation (simple empiricism), for sensation is only a break within the flow of dante alighieri essay absolute consciousness.” Wild and powerful–a good way to describe what he opens up in this passage. Walking presses the question of consciousness (simple or absolute) and sensation, both of learning which push the dante alighieri topics boundaries of A Life in the world. Where to begin? Maybe back in the field where we started. Without doubt, a general walk across that meadow, that field buzzing with life, is india economic, full of sensations perceived by all the aggregate entities found there equipped some sensorium (all the dante alighieri essay way to light sensitive minerals).
Deleuze’s absolute consciousness senses this but does not articulate a sensation as that pitches the absolute consciousness into an opposition–sense/mind/subject vs. world/object. To have a sensation is to break from the essay threat india economic development field where all participate, interact, flow. It is instead, as he said earlier, “a qualitative duration of consciousness without a self [emphasis mine].” He continues: “Must we then define the transcendental field by a pure immediate consciousness with neither object or consciousness with neither object nor self, as a movement that neither begins nor ends.” Here it seems he is using the term consciousness as a placeholder, a concept, to dante topics describe this movement or becoming within the transcendental field. “Consciousness becomes a fact only english thesis when a subject is produced at the same time as its object.” The world of alighieri essay becoming he wants to insurance study interview describe happens before that fall into alighieri essay topics, subject/object. In terms of human experience, such events come in waves. We walk across that field, the low-growing shrubs crowd in insurance case study the path. An unseen rock produces a stubbed toe, an intense sensation, articulating an dante essay immediate subject/object. No transparent eyeball or part or particle of argumentative God there.
Just you, your foot, and dante alighieri that damn rock. But what was happening before the coursework info code unfortunate incident? Was the walker–bathed in light and heat, surrounded by sound–a subject living in an objective world? In Kant’s transcendental philosophy, yes. In Deleuze’s wild and powerful transcendental empiricism, no. We seem to be in some philosophical rare air here, but those out trekking for a long time, who move from the awareness that they are taking a walk into walking, find themselves living an act that is automatic, but not unconscious. This is why Deleuze’s idea is so wild and powerful. The walker is conscious, aware, but only occasionally finds herself as a subject set up against an object. An example: walking the Annapurna Circuit in Nepal which is considered by many to be one of the best long distance treks in the world. Dante? Because of the spacing of coursework info code villages with accommodations, people usually circle the massif counterclockwise. A constant topic of conversation amongst trekkers is the Thorung La, a pass 17,769 ft. high which requires careful acclimatization to prevent altitude sickness.
A walker can approach a trek like the Annapurna Circuit as a circumambulation of a mountain, a way to pay respect to it and the path followed, a path “as a pure stream of a-subjective consciousness.” Or, because Thorung La is an obstacle, it becomes something to dante alighieri be conquered, a goal, something on a bucket list. There is english learning thesis, perhaps no stronger subject/object distinction than man vs. mountain. That sense of self is a youthful philosophy, one of challenges, finely hammered arguments, or treks with rigidly determined itineraries and essay topics carefully marked scenic overlooks. The older, pre-Socratic Deleuzian circumambulator passes landmarks, marvels at the eagles overhead, shrinks from interview high swinging bridges, and of course occasionally takes bearings, but most often feels the path, the air, and light. Dante Alighieri Essay? That experience is by no means a construction of self or a movement into a different world. Rather it is the experience of coursework code pure immanence. So what then is dante alighieri, A [Walking] Life?: “We will say of pure immanence that it is A Life, and argumentative essays on abortion nothing else.” The experience of pure immanence is what he was sketching out earlier with the alighieri essay transcendental field. Coursework Code? It is pre-subject/object and simply lived (not lived simply). Topics? The experience of pure immanence is in the walk in the field not leading to higher consciousness but instead to A Life: “The transcendental field is defined by a plane of immanence and the plane of immanence by a life.” Here is the payoff: Deleuze executes an essay on jackie ethical turn, wanting to embrace A Life not as a primitive experience prior to the celebrated constitution of the human mind, but rather as one I would call profoundly ecological. Such a life “is a haecceity [intensity] no longer of dante alighieri topics individuation but of singularization: a life of pure immanence, neutral, beyond good and evil, for it was only the china india development subject that incarnated it in the midst of alighieri essay things that made it good or bad.” To experience the ethical not as a form of judgment but rather as a form of becoming both outside the trivially ethical good/bad and insurance case study interview inside a transcendental field of fully engaged life, one experienced by many people in many places, but without doubt regularly lived by walkers. Dante Alighieri Topics? It is 500 word on jackie robinson, a life of traverse, of being always in-between: “This indefinite life does not itself have moments, close as they may be one to another, but only between-times, between moments….” Walking is always between.
To stop at a scenic overlook, to marvel at alighieri essay topics the [Emersonian] spectatorial, is to stop. Coursework Info Promotional Code? To be in dante essay a moment, not between. As he says in the essay on essays on abortion pro life Nietzsche published in the same volume: “Modes of life inspire ways of thinking; modes of dante essay thinking create ways of living. Life activates thought, and thought in turn affirms life.” A Life is english thesis, not continuously lived, but when it occurs, it is performed: “A Life contains only virtuals. It is alighieri essay, made up of english thesis virtualities, events, singularities.
What we call virtual is not something that lacks reality but something that is engaged in the process of essay topics actualization following the plane that gives it its particular reality.” A day may begin with a plan and case study interview proceed by a map (the product of dante ichnographic vision), and by the end might have traced out insurance, that (usually digital blue) line, a plane that Deleuze and Guattari would call “territorialization” (in A Thousand Plateaus ), but the passage is purely virtual. In the measure of the day, a walker enacts a plan (not a plane), but that walking is slow. Its measure is on the level of the between-moment. This virtuality is a-conscious because “Consciousness becomes produced as a fact only when a subject is produced at topics the same time as its object…” Consciousness, subject, object are retrospectively produced in the performance of immanence. This then accounts for the indefinite article in Deleuze’s formulation. Coursework Info Code? We are never in the presence of THE LIFE. That would be Being, a definition that pinpoints life in the way GPS and a map captures position but loses everything else. The map does not include the eagles circling overhead, the smell of cherry blossoms, the dante essay topics squeak of learning dry snow, the dante essay topics slip of mud, a midday snack of a Snickers bar, and that sense of rhythmic totality walking brings.
It is indefinite because such becoming always evades capture, even as it is beyond articulation– which is why Deleuze’s last essay is so damn difficult. English? So is walking. T. Dante Essay Topics? Hugh Crawford. The Appalachian Trail is often called the “green tunnel,” an consider the lobster audio acknowledgement of the dense forest canopy that surrounds the footpath. Couple that with uneven terrain that demands downcast eyes and essay topics you have an experience that by and large is devoid of the spectatorial beauty used to advertise and celebrate the trail. Those magnificent views come from scenic overlooks occasionally encountered but not regularly lived. Essay India Development? Still, most long-distance hikers seek that momentary spectacle, looking for the hiker’s sublime. They seem to essay topics understand pleasure, definitely know pain, and without doubt experience more than their share of natural beauty. I cannot even begin to explain what motivates long-distance hikers.
Many want to test their resolve in the face of deprivation over long stretches of space and time, others simply enjoy the simplicity the hiker’s life brings, but all, on some level, acknowledge the desire to experience isolated mountaintops, silent forests, cascading waters. Although over time its fortunes have risen and fallen in aesthetic theory, the concept of the argumentative essays on abortion sublime maintains a special place for walkers–the experience of alighieri topics awe that is awful, a beauty that overwhelms, something that arrests as well as upends. At least since Burke, our understanding of the sublime has been contrasted with the beautiful, terms that are often mixed, particularly in nature writing. For me, the sublime has always been a brutal beauty, though the modes of brutality need some explication. As an consider essay aesthetic category, the dante alighieri topics sublime can be encountered in language (Longinus), nature (Kant), or the visual arts (Lyotard), but it always remains within a discourse of power, specifically of being overpowered. However in most accounts, it–similar to 500 word essay on jackie beauty–is either spectatorial or is passively experienced through speech or reading.
It is dante alighieri topics, a moment of arrest–a hiatus–producing awe, terror, and consider the lobster essay audio a pleasure somehow derived from pain; it belittles and topics makes anxious. We are puny in the face of interview its “irresistible force” (Longinus). Not far from the Appalachian Trail is Virginia’s “Natural Bridge,” a limestone formation once owned and surveyed by Thomas Jefferson who, in Notes on Virginia calls it “the most sublime of Nature’s works.” When regarded from below, it is quite a sight, but, as Jefferson further notes, visitors who venture to the top fear creeping to essay topics its edge: “Looking down from this height about a minute, gave me a violent head ache.” He acknowledges the sublimity of the view below, but “the view from the top [is] painful and intolerable.” Jefferson hung in Monticello a painting of Natural Bridge by William Roberts, a work that participates in the spectatorial sublime, as does viewing the coursework code bridge from the stream bed. However Jefferson’s embodied experience on the precipice is different, resembling trekking in the big outside with its uncertainty, anxiety, pain, and sometimes fear. For Burke, terror is the sublime’s “ruling principle.” It is lived in essay an instant though it is the product of a slowly building situation. Terror in the sense of breathless fear is english learning thesis, not a common experience of the dante alighieri essay hiker, but a low-grade anxiety about health, safety and loss, an anxiety not regularly experienced by people in familiar surroundings, is coursework promotional code, part of dante alighieri essay topics what could be called the ambulatory sublime. Beautiful scenes–the ubiquitous “scenic overlooks”– are staged by an enframing that brings them into foveal vision, into a comfortable spectacle. 500 Word On Jackie? Evolution linked adrenaline and the flight response to peripheral vision, the fear that is invoked by dante essay topics, movement on promotional code the edges of perception. Dante? Moving through the bush requires a heightened awareness of the flickering between foveal and peripheral perception. There the micro-sublime is lived at the edges of perception, where uncertainty and danger lurk. On the Te Araroa, hikers often have to threat follow poles topped by orange cylinders marking the pathless trail.
Spaced at considerable distance, they are sometimes not clearly visible, so on reaching one, the direction to the next is not obvious. The orange chosen for marking stands out from the dante alighieri essay topics rest of the landscape, but it is most easily distinguished by english learning, peripheral vision, that part of sight best equipped to notice the anomalous in the field. Hikers searching for the next marker saccade across the scene, using low-level anxiety to find their way across what feels a vast and inhuman landscape. Such moments are obviously not the dante alighieri essay topics sublime in any traditional sense, but they structure a hiker’s form of 500 word essay attention. Like vision flickering from foveal to peripheral, walking is topics, both spectatorial and immersive, a double move described by the inveterate walkers Wordsworth and Thoreau. Hikers stop for the spectacular, are arrested by those moments, but then continue on, feeling both the loss of the scene and the possibility of an even better one at the next turn. They are moving bodies immersed in a moving nature. Hall of Fame hiker William Wordsworth is reputed to have walked 180,000 miles in his lifetime. Skipping his final exams at Cambridge, he and a friend went on a 2000 mile walk across Europe, with his sublime moment occurring in the Alps. Definitions of the sublime usually focus on a moment, that awful singularity, but such moments pass and essay development walkers continue their journey.
For them, the dante essay sublime opens out over time and is experienced as anticipation, arrest, loss, and continuation. Hiking long-distance (and 2000 miles across Europe qualifies) is passage, not stasis. Hikers may creep out onto the edge of the precipice, but they also will spend most of the day trudging step by step in less heart-pounding circumstances. Despite his anticipation, Wordsworth’s actual crossing of the Alps, as detailed in The Prelude , was a belly-drop. Like most long-distance hikers, he and his friend become momentarily disoriented (moment of essay low-level anxiety). Essay Topics? Finding someone to on jackie robinson ask the way, they discover they have already passed what they most anticipated: To our inquires, in their sense and substance. Translated by the feelings which we had, Ended in this–that we had crossed the dante Alps. Major waypoints bring excitement: Springer Mountain, Katahdin, that constantly shifting AT half-way point in Pennsylvania, the Canadian border on the Pacific Crest Trail, High Cup Nick on the Pennine Way–all points of passage to be cherished, not missed. For Wordsworth, crossing the Alps did not bring a sublime view, but it was a temporally sublime moment, part of the ambulatory sublime experienced not through the eyes but instead through his bootsoles, a quickened pulse and a sense of loss–failure to insurance case capture, contain, or comprehend an always already passing world.
Wordsworth follows that momentary disappointment with an image of timeless sublimity: Downwards we hurried fast, And, with the half-shaped road which we had missed, Entered a narrow chasm. The brook and road. Were fellow-travellers in essay this gloomy strait, And with them did we journey several hours.
At a slow pace. The immeasurable height. Of woods decaying, never to learning be decayed, The stationary blasts of alighieri topics waterfalls, And in the narrow rent at every turn. Winds thwarting winds, bewildered and coursework code forlorn, The torrents shooting from the clear blue sky, The rocks that muttered close upon our ears, Black drizzling crags that spake by dante, the way-side.
As if a voice were in them, the the lobster essay audio sick sight. And giddy prospect of the raving stream, The unfettered clouds and region of the Heavens, Tumult and peace, the darkness and dante alighieri the light— Were all like workings of one mind, the features. Of the same face, blossoms upon one tree; Characters of the the lobster great Apocalypse,
The types and symbols of essay topics Eternity. Permanence and change, momentous visions, it is all here in horrible, awful, overwhelming forms. The reader gets Longinian discursive sublime full-bore, but the long-distance walker gets the other. Theirs is a stationary blast passed by. The pain is not nausea or terror, but footsore pain/pleasure at seeing that which is the lobster essay audio, nominally and normally unavailable to all but the most intrepid. The beauty is brutal, and the experience is brutalizing. Wordsworth missed marking his crossing of the divide, but as he well knows, walking is always about loss. The decaying woods are never to be decayed because they live a different, longer, temporal rhythm. At the same time, walkers are acutely aware of their temporal rhythms, the dante alighieri essay need to mark out the day’s trek, to not get lost, and to live the way intensely.
Long before hordes of Appalachian Trail hikers began to arrive at Baxter State Park to climb Mount Katadhin marking the end of their 2000 mile journey, Thoreau attempted an ascent which he documented in The Maine Woods . Although a part of the massif now bears his name, Thoreau’s climb was unsuccessful (if you define success as attaining the summit). He set out from his group’s encampment just below tree line early one morning filled with hope only to be stymied by on jackie robinson, the notoriously difficult weather near the peak. He attained the top of one of Katahdin’s shoulders but in the mist could not make out the actual peak. Turning, he descended to rejoin his companions offering up this sublime vision: “Nature was here something savage and awful, though beautiful. Dante? I looked with awe at the ground I trod on, to see what the essay Powers had made there, the form and fashion and material of their work.” Then, “Here was no man’s garden, but the unhandselled globe. Dante Essay? It was not lawn, nor pasture, nor mead, nor woodland, nor lea, nor arable, nor waste?land. . . Man was not to promotional code be associated with it.
It was Matter, vast, terrific, ?? not his Mother Earth that we have heard of, not for him to tread on, or be buried in….” Thoreau is firmly in the rhetoric of the literary sublime, offering up a vision of the inhuman which permeates such scenes, but his experience of alighieri that climb is another sublimity. His passage, his inability to comprehend the essay china misty, craggy, inscrutable world he was passing through, was filled with amazement and dante essay topics anxiety. Retracing his steps down a pathless scree in hopes of clearer weather or a sign that he was on the proper way, Thoreau as walker lives the ambulatory sublime and experiences its brutality. Back in November, I woke in Upper Travers Hut hearing Grant, an expedition leader, stoking the fire in the wood stove, and insurance before too long his hiking crew started rustling about. I packed, made oatmeal and coffee, then had a second cup while talking with the dante alighieri topics crew when I really should have been hiking. Ideally I wanted to 500 word essay robinson get to Waiau Forks to alighieri topics camp that night, but that required an early morning climb over Travers saddle which is 1700 + meters and insurance then, late in essay the day, Waiau Pass which, at 1800+ meters, is the india economic development highest point on the South island part of the Te Araroa and also the most dangerous. Regretfully I said my farewells and dante alighieri essay topics started out. It was a sunny clear day as I climbed up above the bush line.
All around were snow-capped peaks, and I made it to the top within an hour, lingering for a moment before starting the long descent to the Sabine River Valley. The winter snows, avalanches, and rock slides had pretty well taken out china threat india economic, all the poles marking the lower part of the dante essay decent, so I followed rock cairns helpfully but haphazardly piled to show the robinson way. By late morning I found the trail through the woods where I crossed the river and made my way up toward Blue Lake. Like the Travers, the Sabine is clear and essay fast running. At its headwaters is Blue Lake, the place where the body of the first hiker to die on the Te Aroroa was found. I arrived by argumentative essays on abortion, midday and decided there was enough daylight to dante make the trek over Waiau. 500 Word Essay Robinson? The trail took me past Lake Constance which rivals Blue in dante essay color and beauty though getting around it required some hard climbing and narrow ledge hiking.
The last bit was on a gravel beach at the water’s edge. The waters coming into thesis, it came across a wide flat plain that the trail followed. It gradually narrowed to a canyon surrounded by snow-capped mountains with nothing that looked like a pass in evidence. Then trail markers made a sharp turn and went straight up the side of alighieri essay one of the mountains which might have had a little bit of on abortion a dip in altitude compared to the others, but hardly deserves the name “pass.” The initial climb was on loose gravel, so each step slid back almost as much as it went forward. After an hour or so, I got the the first leveling off to rest. In mid-winter this is a high avalanche risk area, and I was uncertain what conditions reduce that risk in the spring. Dante Alighieri Essay? Soon I found myself crossing snowfields on the way up, and at the top I saw that the descent down the other side was deep snow for more than a third of the way to the valley floor. Fortunately someone had been through recently, so I was able to follow their footsteps down.
I’m not sure how deep the snow was, but only the argumentative essays on abortion tops of the markers were visible and I would sink to about mid-calf with each step. Sweating from exertion but with freezing feet, I finally got below snow line, followed the western branch of the Waiau River to where it met the eastern half. After eleven hours of hard hiking, I pitched my tent in a beech forest beside the essay river, built a small fire to dry out my shoes and warm my feet, then gratefully crawled into my tent ready for a hard night’s sleep. That day was not part of a discursive or artistic sublime. There were a few moments where the views were without doubt overwhelming. The Travers and Waiau Passes afforded scenes that surpass capture, and a Sabine tributary that runs through a deep roofless cave crossed by a narrow wooden bridge would surely have given Jefferson another head ache, but it was a day of the ambulatory sublime.
A walk where pain was mixed with pleasure, confidence was shaken by uncertainty, and coursework fear was promoted by both low-level anxiety and the real possibility of bodily harm–an intensity not captured by traditional aesthetic categories. Dante? It was temporal, embodied, and immersive, but above all, it was brutal.
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Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in alighieri essay the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on coursework info code, honesty and essay transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon. Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Writing, Sample Essay Topic: Philosophy Essay in coursework info code German - 1220 Words. Dante Alighieri Essay! Essay writing, sample essay topic: Philosophy Essay In German - 1220 words Formulierung des . Problems (Zusammengefasst): Man nehme an, dass es einen Hgel gibt auf dem eine Straenbahn fhrt und am Ende des Hgels eine Strae verluft. Nehmen wir an auf der Strae genau auf den Straenbahnschienen steht ein Schulbus voll mit kleinen Kindern und pltzlich versagen die bremsen der Straenbahn und sie rast auf den Schulbus zu. Essay! Es ist klar das alle Kinder sterben, wenn die Straenbahn den Schulbus trifft.
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T. S. Eliot Poetry: British Analysis - Essay. One useful approach to T. S. Eliot’s poetry is to examine voices and fragments as they announce and dante, illustrate themes. Learning Thesis? In the concluding section of The Waste Land , one of Eliot’s speakers provides a key to that poem, to Eliot’s poetry generally, and to the theory and practice of poetic composition that marked his career as a writer: “These fragments I have shored against my ruins.” These fragments consist mainly of highly allusive phrases and quotations, of intricately wrought verbal symbols, of lines of direct simplicity and complex opacity, of passages of sheer beauty and crabbed commonality fixed in formulated phrases, arranged and essay topics, rearranged until, in the best of the promotional code, poetry, one finds the complete consort dancing together. On first coming to Eliot’s poetry, especially to “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” or The Waste Land , the reader’s usual (and perfectly acceptable) reaction is one of bewilderment, excitement, and, at best, an appreciation of the poetic statements that does not necessarily involve an understanding of precisely what is said, the conditions under which it is said, the full nature of the speaker, or his or her aims, intentions, or situation. The fragments owe much to Eliot’s youthful experience in St. Louis, summers on the New England coast, his Harvard education, his visits to Paris and alighieri topics, Munich, and the Oxford and London years. Furthermore, they stem from consider essay, his lifelong immersion in Dante and the Bible and from his omnivorous reading. Alighieri Essay Topics? He was particularly drawn to French Symbolist poetry (especially Laforgue), the Elizabethan and Jacobean playwrights, especially John Webster, Cyril Tourneur, Christopher Marlowe, and on abortion, William Shakespeare, and Donne and the other Metaphysical poets. To come to Eliot’s poetry with such a literary background is to dante alighieri topics see the phrases of other writers whom Eliot admired take on new and sometimes surprising meanings. To read Eliot’s work without such a background may mean that the reader will miss both the larger and the particular allusions, but still the reader may grasp possible meanings of individual poems.
The unwary reader may be carried along on the surface of the poem or find himself in sympathy with an the lobster expressed emotion without clearly knowing what is at alighieri essay topics, issue. All readers should have recourse to those works to china development which Eliot seems to essay topics allude so that they may proceed the more intelligently with the poem at hand. The fragments that Eliot quotes or alludes to are the necessary baggage of the intelligent reader, impedimenta that include much of the Western European tradition and elements from Middle and Far Eastern culture. In many respects, Eliot the poet became not unlike Joseph Conrad’s Mr. Kurtz or, indeed, Marlow: He became “A Voice,” an “invisible poet” (Hugh Kenner’s phrase) who speaks. 500 Word Robinson? The voice or voices in the poems are usually those that repeat formulas embedded in literary, cultural, and religious traditions—uncertain voices that often betray their speakers’ lack of dante alighieri essay self-knowledge or clear identity; they may be voices (especially in the Ariel poems) whose certitudes are affirmed only as they speak them (word becomes act) and which may be truly chimerical. The voices speaking the fragments, even the unified voice of Four Quartets , are the voices of humanity (though often a special order of humanity) seeking, as they turn over the fragments and seek the china threat economic, sense of sounds, to understand, explain, and identify themselves in terms of the past, present, and future. The voices, desiderative, expectant, seek in the expression of a word or words to communicate themselves to alighieri essay topics other communicants (the reader) and to educate those communicants in the mystery of a common life, the implications of action or inaction, the china economic, generalizable elements of a particular experience or emotion. Long before his Paris year (1910-1911), Eliot had read Arthur Symons’s The Symbolist Movement in alighieri essay, Literature (1899) and had come under the sway of French Symbolist poetry. He had published some undergraduate poetry (phrases of which he used in later poems) and the lobster audio, had begun two major poems, “Portrait of a Lady” and “The Love Song of alighieri topics J. Alfred Prufrock.” He completed the latter at Munich (1911) but it remained in manuscript until Ezra Pound persuaded Harriet Monroe to publish it in Poetry (1915); it then formed the nucleus for Eliot’s first volume of poetry, Prufrock and Other Observations , in which he may justly be said to have inaugurated modern poetry in English.
It is with “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,” the first masterpiece of an apprentice, that a just appreciation of Eliot’s oeuvre should begin. “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” Like “Portrait of a Lady” and most of insurance case study his poetry prior to Four Quartets , “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” is a dramatic, if static, monologue. It is heavily influenced by Jules Laforgue’s poetic technique in that it presents an interior landscape of atomized consciousness. The male narrator (the voice) worries about the possibility of an erotic encounter as he worries and puzzles over his own identity, his too conscious sense of alighieri essay self, his meaning and place in on abortion pro life, a surreal and menacing universe of his own devising, and his observations (objective and subjective genitive, as James Joyce phrased it) while he confides to a reader (who is called on essay topics, to become part of Prufrock’s divided self) the fragmented perceptions of himself and his situation. Study Interview? Prufrock does not, however, arrive at any conclusions about the encounter or about his own identity and meaning. The epigraph (Dante, Inferno , 27) provides a key to the incongruous “love song” of an impossible lover and sets the reader squarely in Hell listening to a reluctant speaker (who cannot say what he means) who will confide in dante essay topics, the auditor/reader as Guido did in the character Dante, “without fear or infamy,” without fear that the secret will be revealed on earth (will become the subject of “observations”), particularly in the hearing of the perplexing women who “come and go” in the troublesome room or of the desirable but distant and somewhat fearsome recumbent woman. It is essay china, possible to exclude the “reader” as the addressee of this poem and to read it as an interior dialogue between “self” and “soul”: Such a reading would heighten to dante alighieri topics a clinical level the disorder of identity that is sensed in Prufrock’s divided self. The voice that addresses the reader in scraps of learning experience remembered and alighieri essay, fearfully anticipated and in fragments of historical- and self-consciousness does so in essay, response to dante alighieri topics a question, presumably posed by the reader in argumentative essays pro life, a Dantesque role.
As Hugh Kenner aptly points out, the reader enters a “zone of dante essay consciousness” in the poem, not a verifiable or constant “realistic” setting. Prufrock is not a “real” character who tells a logical or temporally sequential story. Indeed, the reader participates in the unfolding narrative by hearing and deciding what is learning thesis, part of the world of recognizable experience and what is intrinsic to a fragmented, disjointed, disordered, diseased consciousness that speaks familiarly (“you and I”) of a shared boredom of dante alighieri social rounds and obligations, of the terror of argumentative essays on abortion pro life rejection, and (the greater Prufrockian terror) of acceptance and surrender in sexual contact—all of which contribute to a sense of cognitive and emotional paralysis for which Prufrock finds a disordered “objective correlative” in the “sky/ Like a patient etherised upon dante alighieri essay topics, a table.” The literary fragments in the poem include the central situational analogue in the Inferno , the Polonian self-caricature, and grotesque visions of Saint John the argumentative essays pro life, Baptist and dante, Lazarus returned from the dead. China Threat India Economic? None of the characters in essay topics, the fragments belong to the realm of the living and all represent an inability “to say just what I mean.” “Gerontion” (1919) carries on the pattern of monologue that Eliot established in the lobster essay audio, “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” and “Portrait of a Lady.” Here Eliot presents another voice speaking, besides words of his own devising, words from the Bible, William Shakespeare, Cyril Torneur, Thomas Middleton, Ben Jonson, and George Chapman. He intended “Gerontion” to be a prolegomenon to The Waste Land , and as such it is dante essay, more than adequate: It deals with concerns and embodies themes common to the longer poem: themes such as aridity, the inadequacies of the study, common experience of sexuality and love, history’s “contrived corridors,” the function of memory, the Christian economy of salvation, and the attempts of consciousness to order disparate experiences and make them comprehensible. Alighieri Topics? Structurally, both works are collages that use allusive language to make human history manageable; technically, they both employ a stream of consciousness tentatively centered in the centrifugal thoughts of a “dry brain in a dry season.” Gerontion and insurance, the foreign figures who flit through the Inferno and Purgatorio of dante alighieri essay his memory are figures of learning desolation who have reaped the dante alighieri essay, whirlwind of on jackie their own personal histories and of history generally.
The characters, from Mr. Silvero to Mrs. Alighieri Essay? Cammel, represent some of the dry thoughts that Gerontion houses. They typify one major difficulty that the poem presents: the tension between the past, the past remembered in the present, and the present—the past dominating the present and india economic development, vitiating it as memory mixes with desire in a futile nostalgia that prevents the narrator from dante alighieri topics, acting (reaching conclusion). This temporal tension is at the poem’s core and is resolved only in the poem’s emphasis on the act of remembering. Once again, as in “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” and The Waste Land , the self-conscious voices utter personal and historical fragments that illuminate consciousness speaking. The point of remembering these fragments is to identify a fundamental problem of meaning that attaches to peripheral love (of art, for example) and to love (possibly of the poem’s addressee), its meaning in info promotional code, personal and essay topics, general historical context, and the relationship of those meanings to the meaning of the death for which Gerontion waits and the possibility of another kind of life hereafter. The transition from coursework info code, “Gerontion” to The Waste Land , in which Gerontion is dante alighieri, transformed into Tiresias, is essay audio, a movement from considerable opacity to relative clarity, though the later poem is indeed perplexing. In 1953, Eliot wrote that he did not look forward with pleasure either to literary oblivion or to a time when his works would be read only by a few graduate students in dante alighieri essay topics, “Middle Anglo-American, 42B.” Together with “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” and Four Quartets , The Waste Land ensures that neither of those ends is interview, probable.
Eliot stunned all, and outraged some, of the literary world in 1922 with the publication (in The Criterion and The Dial ) of The Waste Land , a work that has engendered more commentaries, interpretations, and discussions than any other poem of the twentieth century. Structurally, the work is a series of topics five poems that constitute one poem; parts of it were written and rewritten over the course of at least seven years, with editorial help for the final version from Ezra Pound. When he published it in book form, Eliot added more than fifty notes to the poem, some of which are not helpful and some of which emphasize the importance of vegetation ceremonies and direct the reader to Sir James Frazer’s The Golden Bough (1890-1915) and to threat economic development Jessie L. Weston’s work on the Grail legend, From Ritual to Romance (1920). The wealth of dante topics literary fragments, clues, and allusions to other works, the inclusion of foreign words and phrases and of arcane material, may produce some bafflement and has inspired numerous exegetical tracts. It is of primary importance not to treat the poem as a highly sophisticated double-cross; instead, one should, before beginning a search for sources and analogues, surrender to it as an emotional, intellectual, puzzling, and essay audio, disquieting poem.
It is only in allowing for dante essay, the experience of communicable and precisely incommunicable emotion that the poem can work as a poem rather than as an occasion for the exercise of literary archeology. Eliot wrote (note to 1.218), “Tiresias, although a mere spectator and not indeed a ’character,’ is yet the most important personage in the poem, uniting all the rest. . . English Thesis? . What Tiresias sees , in fact, is the dante alighieri topics, substance of the poem.” One may, on Eliot’s authority, read the poem as an account of insurance case interview Tiresias’s observations as he guides the reader through his own memory to various locations in essay topics, The Waste Land as seen or remembered on a journey that is both in and out of time. Thus, many elements fall into place as Tiresias subsumes all the characters or speakers in a multilayered, cyclical ritual of death and rebirth. Alternatively, one may read the poem as a series of fragmented monologues, in the manner of “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,” so that Tiresias’s becomes only one among many voices. So to learning read it is to find Eliot’s note somewhat misleading. Assuming that this is a Symbolist poem, perhaps the Symbolist poem of the twentieth century, the historical and cultural dimensions that many critics have so ably attributed to dante essay it (as being a poem about the disillusionment of a particular generation, about the 1920’s, about London, and so on) recede. So, too, do the ubiquitous anthropological considerations of barren land, infertility, initiation rites, and the death of the lobster essay audio gods. Essay Topics? Both sets of data may, then, be treated as “objective correlatives” for emotions that the poet seeks to express. What remain as underlying themes are sexual disorder (basic to the Grail and to vegetation myths), the lack of and need for religious belief (accented negatively by essays pro life the presence of Madam Sosostris and dante alighieri topics, positively in “The Fire Sermon” and “What the Thunder Said”), and the process of poetic composition (fragments “shored against my ruins”).
These may be seen as elaborations in The Waste Land of themes present in “Portrait of a Lady,” “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,” “The Hippopotamus” (1917), and study interview, “Gerontion”; they are themes that also relate directly to Eliot’s lessons from Dante’s La vita nuova (c. 1292; Vita Nuova , 1861; better known as The New Life ) and La divina commedia (c. 1320, 3 volumes; The Divine Comedy , 1802). The diverse interpretations of what the poem is about have obvious implications for how one values the fragments of which it is composed and, to return to the question of voice, how one identifies the alighieri essay, speaker and the burden of his speech. If, for example, one assumes that the blind, androgynous Tiresias speaks in many voices and case, does so with foreknowledge of all, one may conclude that the work stands as a monument to the disillusionment not of one generation but of many. One may also find that the slight progress of the Fisher King from the dull canal behind the gashouse (part 3) to the shore (part 5) has slight significance and that the question about essay setting his lands in order is, like shoring fragments against ruins, all that can be done before capitulating to the inevitable continuation of info promotional code a condition in which the land will remain waste. Essay Topics? Tiresias has, after all, foreseen this, too. India Economic? If one assumes a multiplicity of voices, however, beginning with Marie, the Hyacinth Girl (or, in the epigraph, with the Sibyl’s complaint and the voice speaking of it), and ending with the Fisher King, the dante alighieri topics, Thunder, and a new voice (or many voices) speaking in insurance study interview, the poem’s last lines, one has a quite different experience of the poem. Essay Topics? In the second reading, one treats the work as a series of soliloquies or monologues all mixing memory with quite different desires, all commenting on various meanings (or lack of meaning) or love, and all concerned with hope or its opposite, hope negated in self-irony, hope centered on the release from thesis, individual prisons, hope tempered by trepidations attendant on the “awful daring of a moment’s surrender,” and, possibly, hope that the Fisher King has finally thrown off accidia by asking himself the one needful question. In either reading, how one treats the speaker and the meaning of the fragments raises other questions that drive one back into the poem, and each new reading raises new questions. There is no doubt that sexual disorder is a dominant theme, that the disorder concerns the dissociation of appetitive action from the intellectual and emotional aspects that would make the action human and not merely a reflex action, and that the symptoms of disorder are common to such characters as the typist, Mr.
Eugenides, Mrs. Porter, Elizabeth I, Tiresias, Philomel, and the Fisher King. Add to this the abiding sense of death and its meaning, and the spiritual teachings of Buddhism and the mystery religions (Christianity among them), and new complexities emerge, as do new questions that only the Thunder can answer. The poem’s last verse paragraph displays little overt coherence once the alighieri essay, Fisher King asks his question, but it does nevertheless offer a direct key to understanding the poem. That the Fisher King has traversed the arid plains, has put them behind him and now may have some power to set his kingdom in order, provides a sense of code closure.
In the next line (1. Dante Alighieri Essay? 427), London Bridge, crossed by essay threat india economic development so many who had been undone by death in the unreal City (part 1), is dante alighieri essay topics, falling down: This action will end the procession of dead commuters; in the nursery rhyme there is no adequate means to rebuild the bridge permanently. The next line is from case, Dante, who is a source for many of the attitudes, emotions, and possibly the situational contexts of many of the poem’s speakers: Here Arnaut Daniel, suffering in Purgatory for sins of lust, leaps back into the refining fire of his own accord; this may be seen as a gloss on the “Fire Sermon” and as a cure for the various forms of lust in the entire poem. Alighieri Essay? There follow lines from “Pervigilium Veneris,” a reference to english learning Philomela (echoes of parts 2 and 3) and dante, from Gerard de Nerval’s “El desdichado.” This last may have metapoetical implications for learning thesis, the authorial Eliot and may also recall another quest for rightful inheritance—in Sir Walter Scott’s novel Ivanhoe (1819). In “These fragments I have shored against my ruins” (1. 430), “these fragments” are the preceding 429 lines, the immediately preceding seven lines, the fragmented speeches, the dante essay topics, fragments of poetic and religious traditions, and the fragments of verses composed over many years to form the poem itself. The reference to Thomas Kyd’s The Spanish Tragedy (pr. c. 1585, 1. 431), in which Hieronymo proposes to “fit” a play using fragments of poetry in several languages (tongues) could, as Bernard Bergonzi indicates, comment directly on The Waste Land itself. The penultimate line repeats the Thunder’s statements, giving them more point; and the final lines translated by Eliot as equivalent to “The Peace which passeth understanding.” What do these keys unlock? Surely they suggest what a reader should know of European and Eastern literary, cultural, and religious traditions to study interview grasp some of the poem’s meanings.
They may also serve to alighieri essay help the reader see, to paraphrase Eliot, the end in the beginning and the beginning in the end. Having come to the end of the poem, one must be prepared to read it anew from the beginning. Bernard Bergonzi, following C. K. Stead’s analysis of the pattern and meaning of essay robinson Four Quartets , provides an alighieri topics invaluable guide to the significance of each of the poem’s five sections. “The Burial of the Dead” concerns movement in time (seasons, change, reluctant birth); “A Game of Chess” reveals patent dissatisfaction with worldly experience; “The Fire Sermon” leads through purgation in the world and a divesting of the soul of love for info code, created things; “Death by Water” is a brief lyric containing a warning and an invocation; “What the dante topics, Thunder Said” deals with the issues of spiritual health and artistic wholeness. To read the work as a poem about the artist’s concern for artistic wholeness allied to essays pro life spiritual health offers extraordinary and suggestive possibilities for revaluing it and the poetry that preceded it. “The Hollow Men” has often been read as a poem written at the nadir of the dante topics, poet’s emotional life, a depressing and coursework code, depressed poem. This may be a correct reading; it may also be, however much it is favored by dante essay topics scores of writers who seek autobiographical confessions in insurance case, Eliot’s poetry, wide of the mark. The poem seems, indeed, to have been composed from fragments discarded from earlier drafts of The Waste Land . Again, voice and fragment should guide the wary reader.
The epigraph, from Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness (1902), should put the reader on guard: The speech is that of an African worker reporting the death of Mr. Kurtz to Conrad’s narrator-once-removed, Marlow, whose account is passed on to the dante topics, reader by one who heard him tell the tale. The reader is, like the hollow men, at insurance study, several removes from anything like experience at firsthand; and several emotional layers separate Conrad’s reader from Kurtz: Eliot adds another emotional layer of separation but strikes a responsive note of limited sympathy in his readers who have read Conrad. This is only one small reflection of the ways in which Heart of Darkness stands in relation to this poem and, by extension, to The Waste Land and its “preface,” “Gerontion.” This poem, like earlier poems and the later Ash Wednesday , is topics, obsessed with death. One of Dante’s dead, a “hollow man” ( Inferno , 3) who lived, without blame and without praise, a life of accidia, addresses the reader in argumentative, self-explanation and communal confession. Two other major sources inform the poem and quicken the sense of death: the alighieri topics, history of the Gunpowder Plot and the Elizabethan dramatic account of assassination found in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar (pr. c. 1599-1600, in which the china economic, phrase “hollow men” occurs). Dante? The reader is clearly in the presence of the dead, just as Dante’s Pilgrim listened to english the hollow men, who were neither for Jehovah nor against him, in the Hell of their own making. Alighieri Essay Topics? Like the addressee of Heart of Darkness , the reader hears, perhaps seated in a club chair, a story of Marlow telling a tale prompted by india development his observation that his present location (seated on a yawl on the Thames) was once one of the dark places of the earth (and may still be so).
In each case, the reader/addressee is told a story of darkness, a story of the Shadow, a story of failure and, ultimately, of inconsequence, a story told to pass the time. In Ash Wednesday , so named for the first day of Lent, a day for the turnings of dante alighieri topics Christian metanoia, Dante’s mysticism and its correlative tension between flesh and spirit are elaborated. The situation of which the voice speaks, a conversion that is not without difficulty and contention, is told not in logical, sequential narrative but in a disciplined Symbolist dream. Here, for example, the the lobster essay, Lady subsumes many ladies (the rejected one of blessed face, Beatrice, Theologia, Ecclesia) and Eliot’s earlier expressions of dehumanization (such as the dante alighieri topics, classic “ragged claws” of “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”) now become expressions of Christian humility. Unquestionably influenced by Eliot’s own turning to the Anglican Church in 1928, this poem, together with the Ariel poems, represents poetic pilgrimages of hope that do not necessarily find resolution of the tensions between flesh and spirit but that indicate possibilities for subliminal resolution in 500 word, transcendence. The assured masterpiece of his poetic maturity, Four Quartets is more immediately accessible than Eliot’s early and middle work. The poems that comprise it, like his earlier poetry, grew incrementally from dante alighieri essay topics, “Burnt Norton,” which sprang from lines discarded from Murder in the Cathedral , to “Little Gidding,” with “East Coker” and “The Dry Salvages” intervening. Unlike his earlier poetry, the poems of Four Quartets lack a dramatic character who speaks; instead, they are in the lyric tradition of direct poetic speech in pro life, which the speaker has a constant voice that may well be the essay topics, poet’s own. Threat Development? Unfortunately, the alighieri topics, speaker sometimes assumes the hortatory voice of the preacher. This shift in argumentative on abortion, poetic style, away from masks and personae, is alighieri essay, a new element in Eliot’s verse.
Each of the poems adopts a musical and frequently iterative pattern, as if the reader is meant to hear the instrumental conversations endemic to musical quartets. In reading these poems, one is info, frequently reminded of Walter Pater’s dictum that “all art continually aspires to the condition of music.” The poems are set pieces in the eighteenth century tradition of verse inspired by a visit to a specific place. Taken together, they constitute some of Eliot’s most beautiful (and, in places, most banal) poetry, as the lyricist adopts a consistent poetic voice that muses on the process of cognition and composition. The essential structure of these poems, filled as they are with local references dear to Eliot, follows the five-part structure of The Waste Land . C. K. Stead admirably analyzes the fivefold structure of each of the dante essay, sections of consider the lobster audio Four Quartets as follows: the movement of time, in which brief moments of eternity are caught; worldly experience, leading only to dissatisfaction; purgation in the world, divesting the soul of love of created things; a lyric prayer for, or affirmation of the need of, intercession; and the problems of attaining artistic wholeness which become analogues for, and merge into, the problems of alighieri achieving spiritual health. The poems of Four Quartets in some way negate, by their affirmations, the fragmented, disparate, and “unreal” elements in Eliot’s earliest poems, but on the whole, they present a synthesis of Eliot’s poetic concerns and his varied statements about the problems and business of being a poet.
They stand not at the end of his artistic career but at the summit of his career as a poet whose later work, in both bulk and intensity, is minimal. Four Quartets constitutes a compendium of the coursework info, themes that Eliot pursued from his earliest days as a poet, but with the dante alighieri essay topics, decided difference that sex has become part of love, belief has been ratified, and the world has become flesh again. The fire and the rose are one. Access our T. S. Eliot Study Guide for learning, Free. T. S. Eliot Homework Help Questions. The following quote was taken from T. S. Eliot's poem Little Gidding: We shall not cease from essay, exploration and argumentative pro life, the end of all our exploring will be to dante alighieri essay arrive where we began and to know the. For T.S. Eliot and certainly other poets, writing poetry can indeed be an 500 word on jackie robinson escape from emotion and personality.
For others, poetry is actually a way to process their emotions and demonstrate who. T. S. Eliot's poem Marina is based on alighieri essay topics, a play by William Shakespeare, Pericles, Prince of Tyre. In this play, the protagonist Pericles survives a rather improbable series of shipwrecks. In the. T. Insurance? S. Eliot is often considered one of the dante alighieri, most important – and also one of the most emblematic – literary figures of the info promotional code, twentieth century.
As a leading proponent and practitioner of literary. T.S Eliot's essay Tradition and the Individual Talent is very metaphysical in its concepts; definitions of his main points are only understood within the context of the quantum metaphysical.